Imatges de pàgina

viper, which outvenoms all the worms From that hour the star of glory of the Nile, is still pouring out bitter

Shone on Judah's hallow'd ground, invectives against him, and striving When the shepherds sang the story to blast his character,” for reputed

Where the infant King was found, orthodoxy I suppose,

'to bring hiin

Thro' the gloom of darkest ages, under condemnation' by the Church, Truth has shone with piercing ray, and thus cause him to be thrust out And the balm that pain assuages of the Synagogue. But this is not in Shed ou hearts that own its sway. their power. A spirit of inquiry seems

To the light of grace inshining to be abroad among us, and the Thro' the darkness of our souls, youth appear disposed to search for We must bow with hearts inclining themselves, and not pin their faith To his will that ours controuls. upon pontiffs, cardinals, or their privy Thus we learn by revelation, counsellors, who are nothing but ty

What the will of God makes known, rannical, sectarian bigots ; and, if Thus we bow in adoration, sanctioned by law, would soon cause Humbly at the Saviour's throne. a Smithfield smoke to be raised among Need we then the long narration us.” The letter-writer adds, “I have

As the means, our heaven to win? been informed, the people who call No, the source of our salvation, themselves Friends are about to lay Is the light of Christ within. a proposal before their ecclesiastical court to publish a new confession of By the eternal word of power,

Manifest within the mind, faith to the world, since Elias has jos. Acting in the silent hour, tled their lees, and produced a fer On the thoughts of human kind: mentation, which I hope will purge For this holy truth professing, out all their old leaven. I have long

Long our fathers suffer'd sore, sighed for a Reformation. If it begin Long contended for the blessing, in this city, it will spread far and Given to the saints before. wide. All the meetings seem convulsed !!”

Now again the way thou showest,

That the Apostles erer trod, To give you and your readers some

Heaven reward thee as thou goest,. farther idea of the warunth with which

On the errand of thy God. the attempt to obstruct Elias Hickes in the exercise of the sacred rights of Persecutions here attend thee, conscience and of free discussion has But the Eternal shall defend thee,

Which the saints have ever kuown, been met, I send copy


From the shaft that hate has thrown. complimentary lines addressed to Elias Hickes during the contest, on hearing

And may'st thou, when hence retiring,

When this tour of love shall cease, him preach a sermon, Dec. 12th last, at Philadelphia.

Feel thy soul to God aspiring,

And enjoy his holy peace.”
Yes, we saw thee stand before us,
Heard the words thy lips impart,

From these lines I think we may Felt that heavenly love was o'er us,

safely infer that the heresy imputed to For each sentence touch'd the heart. Elias Hickes is not a dereliction of the To the work by heaven appointed,

distinguishing tenet of the Quakers, in Thou the light of truth hast shed,

the language of Barclay, the doctrine

of “ inmediate Divine Revelation.” Coming as the Lord's anointed, Kuowledge of his will to spread.

But in what comparative estimation

Elias Hickes, or his poetical Eulogist, As on Sinai's holy mountain

holds the authentic records of the Shone the Prophet's face divine,

primitive Christian faith, once reEffulgent thus from heavenly fountain

vealed to the saints under special and Rays of truth illumined thine.

extraordinary circumstances, is left unLike some angel sent from heaven,

certain. Nor is it clear to me whether To instruct the human race,

the writer means to ascribe “ adoraWere thy admonitions given

tion” to the person whom he describes From the source of truth and grace.

the infant King," or to his God Thou no untaught doctrine teachest,

and Father whom he addressed in But that which was erst received, prayer, when the time of his sufferGod's eternal truth thou preachest, ings and death was at hand, as "the

That his saints have all believed. only true God.”

you a



Mr. Cooper on Negro-Slavery in Jamaica.

231 Wishing this extraordinary differ- it is their duty to unite with those ence of sentiment, among the most who wish to effect its gradual amenumerous body of Friends in the lioration and ultimate annihilation. world, may promote on both sides a Again let me explain, that, for my spirit of serious, candid, dispassionate own part, I give them the fullest inquiry, and thereby tend to the fur- credit, as a body of Slave-holders, therance of the gospel in its genuine for the disposition to render the lot purity and simplicity, I am,

of their unfortunate bondmen and BEREUS. bondwomen as little oppressive as pos

sible ; and that it is not them, but Newcastle-under-Lyme, their system with which I feel so much Sır, April 12, 1823.

dissatisfaction. I think it not imposfrom

the eye Mr. Bright, the honourable spectable correspondent, Euelpis, (p. Member for Bristol, in which case I 100,] that my animadversions [XVII. solicit his attention to a part of its 751] on his letter (XVII. 677) should contents, as well as that of Euelpis. have led him to suppose that I felt I learn from the newspapers of the myself hurt at his remarks, on what day, that the former has no very high I have written, in your valuable work, opinion of me, either as a man or as on the moral and religious instruction

a Christian minister. Indeed, if the of the Negro Slaves in the West In- Morning Chronicle* may be relied on, dies. I must, therefore, beg to assure

he has openly charged me with spirihim, that I never imagined he had the tual pride and neglectful conduct as a slightest intention of wounding my Missionary, while I was in Jamaica, feelings, much less of questioning my besides broadly insinuating that I can veracity; and that it has been a stand- be guilty of the contemptible and hor. ing rule with me, ever since I read rid crime of falsehood. These are Mason on Self Knowledge, never to grave charges, calculated to ruin my take offence without being previously character, blast all my hopes as a satisfied that offence was actually in- public man, and destroy, at one blow, tended. After this, I trust, he will the credit of the statements which readily believe, that however unhappily some thought I night make to the I may have expressed myself in a fore advantage of the approaching contest, mer epistle, I was really gratified, on the subject of Negro-Slavery. Had rather than otherwise, with his friendly Mr. B. descended to particulars, it queries. My opinions of the withering might have been expected that I should influence of Negro-Slavery may pos- have entered on a particular reply; sibly appear soinewhat peculiar; if but this, I think, he has not sufficiently they are erroneous, my only wish is done, and, therefore, he is respectto have them corrected. The subject fully invited to proceed to the task, or is daily becoming more and more in- expected, as a inan of honour, to reteresting and important; and I rejoice tract his very unhandsome and most to learn that it is already under the injurious language. The passage in scrutiny of several individuals of high the petition from Southwark against distinction in the philanthropic world. Negro-Slavery, presented to the House If it were desirable, it would be im- of Commons by Sir R. Wilson, which possible to keep down discussion, and, so inuch offended Mr. B., was evias a Christian and a friend to the na- dently the following, taken from a tural rights of our species, I am quite small work, lately published for Hatchwilling to communicate, for the advan- ard and Son, Piccadilly, and J. and A. tage of both parties, any information, Arch, Cornhill, entitled, “ Negro bearing on the controversy, which my Slavery.” “Mr. Cooper never saw a late residence in the seat of Slavery Negro who, when uncovered, did not enabled me to acquire. Let the whole exlibit marks of violence, that is to truth be known, and judgment given say, traces of the whip on his body.” accordingly. If there be no injustice in Slavery, the Planters can have

# I would refer the reader to the No. nothing to fear even froin the most of the paper containing the Report of rigid examination of the system. But Mr. Brighi's Speech, but it is not at if there be, they must perceive that hand.

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Of the petition in question, I, of throw a little fresh light on the subcourse, can have no knowledge ex- ject, I will now adduce a few particucepting what is derived from a news lars respecting what has been accoinpaper, and whatever construction the plished by the Moravian brethren. petitioners may have put upon the quo- It is well known that on Mesopotamia tation, I have only to say, that I never estate, in Westmoreland, the brethren meant any thing more by it than that have long exerted themselves in the I never saw a Negro uncovered who cause : indeed, they have given more did not exhibit marks of the whip on than half a century of their valuable his body. This fact I repeat, and will time to this station ; but certainly add, (although it may seem still more without producing any very important incredible,) that satisfactory evidence improvement in the spiritual condition of a Negro's being inarked with the of the Slaves. This I state on the whip, may sometimes be obtained authority of one of their own Miswithout removing the garments ; that sionaries, in addition to the testimony is, the blood may be seen issuing of several white gentlemen, well acthrough them. In confirmation of quainted with the case. I might add, this, I pledge myself to lay before the that I visited the estate myself, and public at least two cases, one of which had an opportunity of conversing with shall be that of my own waiting-boy, all the Negroes then living upon it, John Harden, who was punished at who had ever been under the care of my own request

. I would here give the Missionaries, and I can truly say, the particulars, did I not fear that I that I could not perceive that, with should thereby swell this letter to a the exception of a few religious phrases tedious length. When they are known, which they had mastered, they gave any I expect to be visited with an ample proof of possessing a particle of relishare of blame. Mr. B., no doubt, gious or any other knowledge supebelieves lnimself to be well acquainted rior to what may be found any day with every thing respecting the cha- amongst the common herd. None of racter and condition of the Negro them had ever been taught to read, Slaves, and will, perhaps, be some and in morals, I was assured by those what surprised when I assure him, on who must have known the truth, that my honour, that one of the blackest they were not a whit better than the accounts of the morals and disposi- rest of the gang. After such experition of these people, which I remem- ence, is it surprising that the breber ever to have heard, referred imine, thren should begin to regard Mesodiately to a large gang belonging to an potamia with a hopeless eye? Irwin, estate in Westmoreland, well known in St. James, is another station now to him. This I had at first hand, and, in their hands : a Missionary has reif true, will, I must think, afford sided upon it, I believe, nearly ten another reason for investigating the years, who also attends to the reliSlave system in all its bearings. gious concerns of the Slaves on three

That the exertions of the Missiona or four other properties in the neighries in the West Indies are destitute of bourhood. He follows the plan of beneficial results, I am not aware that preaching and chatechising, but does I have ever affirmed or insinuated; not teach any one to read. His sucwhile I certainly have presumed to cess is not very dissimilar to that question, whether the quantum of which I experienced on Georgia. The good which they have achieved, has Negroes will attend on him, with a not been somewhat overrated. Euele few exceptions, when they are allowed pis will bear in mind, that I allude to time for the purpose, and on a Sunday the exertions of these gentlemen on a few will occasionally make him a estates where, with the exception of call. The good man laments that so four or five white men, the whole of little arises from his labours, but says the population are slaves, and not to he is willing to sow in hope; and we their labours in towns, where the mass may always console ourselves with the of the people are free. Jo my last I idea, that time will work changes. made it appear, that the low estima- He is an advocate for teaching the tion in which I hold Missionary la. Slaves to read, and seems to think bours on estates, is by no means with that it might be done without preju. out an example; and, with a view to dice to the existing order of things.

“ cared

Mr. Cooper on Negro-Slavery in Jamaica.

233 It is possible that Slavery may wear former would have been administered a more terrific form in that part of Ja- by the whip, and the latter rendered maica in which I resided than it does more than commonly painfal, by both in St. Eustatius, the scene of Mr. feet being put into the stocks. “As to French's labours. And this, indeed, a Slave's accounting for his conduct must be the case, if the narrative of as a runaway, a robber, and a ringthe robber, in the latter, as given by leader of a gang of desperadoes, on this gentleman, be sufficiently full to the score of no one having impart a complete idea of the case; for his religious concerns," it is what for, had it occurred in the former, I have no idea ever happened in Hano-measures of a far more serious nature ver; and if even it did, I am still less would have been adopted, on the ap- inclined to believe that the plea would prehension of the delinquent, than be admitted. That all these things appear to have been thought of in St. really took place in St. Eustatius I Eustatius. In Jamaica, the crime of do not deny, while I must remark, desertion is viewed in a very serious that if Mr. F. has told the whole light, as it plainly strikes at the roots truth, the condition of the Slaves in of the Slave system. If the offender that island is essentially different from be tried in a court of justice, and pro- that of those in Jamaica, with which nounced an incorrigible runaway, he I and my wife were personally acis transported for "life ; but should quainted. All the accounts froin the robbery and rebellion be added to his Missionaries, which I have seen, are crime, I cannot imagine that any thing indeed calculated to convey the idea short of hanging would be thought of that the Slaves, amongst whom they Overseers and inagistrates may, and, have been placed, are in circumstances I firmly believe, do wish to forgive, comparatively mild with the governwhen they are able to find a tolerablement under which the Blacks in Hapretext; but, in cases like the present, nover are doomed to groan and cry. they are compelled to be severe, or Of the benevolence of teaching the risk the most tremendous conse- Negroes Christianity, while the deterquences. I feel that were I myself an mination is to hold them for ever in overseer on any estate with which I a state of complete bondage, I hope am acquainted,' I should be under the to have an opportunity of treating at hard necessity of remonstrating with large in another place. Euelpis knows my runaways, by means of the whip, that I regard Negro-Slavery as a most the bilboes and the workhouse, and fertile source of ignorance, pain and even at times by all these put toge- vice, and, therefore, he ought not to ther, or abandon my profession as a feel surprised that I suppose that Planter. I speak of the general rule, Christianity, if propagated in its puto which there would, of course, be rity in the sugar-islands, would effect occasional exceptions, such, for in- its ultimate extirpation. I regard stance, as that of the above robber, Christianity as a pure and holy reliwhose conduct was certainly far more gion, and have no doubt, but that as than commonly iniquitous. ' It should the human race submit themselves to be remarked, that he not only kept its unadulterated influence, they will from his master's work fourteen become pure and holy, and from a months, and became a most notorious sense of duty lay aside all their imrobber, but he absolutely acted as the pure and upholy practices and insticaptain of others, “ whom he got to tutions, and Negro-Slavery amongst join him.” At length, however, lie the rest. I am fully aware that perwas caught, put into confinement, ex sons of great repute for theological postulated with by his master, and knowledge and critical skill, have conversed with by Mr. French, which maintained that the gospel not only was followed by a "real change of justifies Slavery in the abstract, but heart and life.” Now, to a person even the conduct of a master who less suspicious than myself, the report lashes his Slave for having presumed would convey the idea of the expos- to disobey his commands. I have a tulations of the master being merely wife and several small children who verbal, and the confinement of an are the pride of my existence and the ordinary nature. But in Jamaica the daily delight of my heart. Now, if


2 H

they were seized and sold to the Plan- had not these, would scarcely read ters to slave in the sugar-islands, any thing, or nothing but the vilest would it be a crime in me, as a Chris- trash, is a striking proof of the utility tian, to, attempt to effect, without of the institution. money, their deliverance? Or, in them, To those of the poor, who are preto run away the moment the eye of vented by illness or lameness from their tyrant was off them? Here I following their usual occupations, and could enlarge, but, Mr. Editor, I am who are able to read with tolerable fearful of being thought prolix. In a correctness, these tracts are an invaluword, therefore, I will be bold to as- able treasure. Few indeed, deplorably sert, that while Christianity contem- few, are the resources which persons plates mankind in the light of rational in this situation generally possess. beings, Slavery regards them simply Their minds uncultivated; their know, in that of mere animals.

ledge scanty, with scarcely any means I should feel a pleasure in complet- either of amusement or improvement; ing my series of papers in compliance and scarcely any society which can with the friendly request of your cor- render them any consolation; their respondent Euelpis, were I not pledged days and nights drag heavily on, and to lay before the public a more de- they have nothing to do but to count tailed account of my late mission to and wish away the tedious hours. W Jamaica, in a pamphlet devoted to the think, and justly think it to be our purpose, than has yet appeared. This duty, in all such cases, to render some being the case, I conclude that no one comfort and assistance to the afflicted will wishe me to occupy any more of body; why not then equally to the your pages with cominunications on distressed and vacant mind ? A few the subject in hand.

shillings expended in the purchase of THOMAS COOPER. these tracts, to be either given or lent

on such occasions, would relieve and Appeal in behalf of the Christian

cheer many a dreary hour of wretchTract Society.

edness, by furnishing the mind with

agreeable and profitable employment. THE

Society are so well known, and views of the Deity, and of his dealings so universally acknowledged among with his creatures, which are uniformly Unitarian Dissenters, that it might inculcated in these publications, and have been hoped nothing more would the fine spirit of habitual devotion have been necessary to stimulate us which pervades and runs through the to a cheerful, active and zealous sup- whole of them, can scarcely fail of port of an institution, fraught witls making many valuable impressions, as such incalculable benefit to society, well as of imparting the purest and and more particularly to the young the most durable consolation to the and the poor. Whoever has attentively wounded and afflicted spirit. witnessed the effects of their publica Equally beneficial are these publitions on these descriptions of persons, cations to apprentices and servants in must have observed that they are cal- the various departments of life. It is culated to convey religious knowledge a melancholy fact, that the employers in the most easy, interesting and en- of these persons seldom pay much atgaging form; and to produce religious tention to the manner in which they impression, and excite to religious spend their small portion of leisure practice, by the most powerful of all time: and, consequently, it is too often persuasives, the influence of attractive spent, not only without improvement, and interesting examples. The narra. but in a way to unfit them for becomtive and dialogue form in which most ing useful and virtuous members of of these publications are written, it is society in the present life, and to diswell known, are by far the most effec- qualify them for the happiness of a tual methods of conveying instruction future state. But if some kind and to young and uncultivated minds ; judicious Christian friend, who has and the eagerness with which these the real welfare of the rising generatracts are sought after, and read by tion at heart, would take the trouble thousands of persons, who, if they to furnish them with a few of these

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