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had induced Daniel D. Tompkins, then vice-president, and, from his popularity in his native state, emphatically termed the man of the people, to become his opponent. After his reelection, great resistance was made to his measures; but, fortunately, the canal scheme, of which Mr. Clinton was one of the prime movers and most efficient advocates, had been so firmly established, that it was secure from attack. Having nothing to fear for this favorite object, he proceeded in his plans of public improvement, notwithstanding the violence with which he was assailed; but in 1822, he declined offering himself again as a candidate, and retired into private life. In 1810, Mr. Clinton had been appointed, by the senate of his state, one of the board of canal commissioners; but the displeasure of his political opponents, who were, at that time, greatly predominant in the legislature, was excited by the enthusiasm evinced in his favor at the canal celebration, in October, 1823, at Albany, and they deprived him of his office. This act, however, for which no reason could be assigned, occasioned a complete reaction of the public feeling towards him. His friends did not suffer the opportunity to escape, but again brought him forward as a candidate for the office of governor, and carried him, by a most triumphant majority, over colonel Young. In 1826, he was again elected, by a large majority, over judge Rochester; but he died before this term was completed. His decease was in consequence of a catarrhal affection of the throat and chest, which, being neglected, occasioned a fatal disease of the heart. He expired almost instantaneously, whilst sitting in his library, after dinner, Feb. 11, 1828. His son was writing near him, and, on being informed by him of a sense of oppression and stricture across his breast, immediately called in medical aid; but before the physician could arrive, his father was no more. The next day, business was suspended in Albany. The public testimonials of respect paid to his memory, throughout the state and Union, were almost numberless. His body was interred with every honor. Mr. Clinton was tall, finely proportioned, and of a commanding aspect. In his domestic and social relations, he was cheerful and kind; in his friendships, warm and sincere; and in his moral character, unexceptionable. His manners were rather distant and reserved, in consequence of long habits of abstraction, and a natural diffidence, of which he never could divest himself. He was an early riser, and ex

tremely laborious, every moment which he could spare from his necessary duties being devoted to the cultivation of his mind. No one was ever more ambitious of a reputation for science and literature. In some of the physical sciences he was especially versed, and his proficiency as a classical and belles-lettres scholar was very considerable. He was a member of a large part of the literary and scientific institutions of the U. States, and an honorary member of many of the learned societies of Great Britain and the continent of Europe. His productions are numerous, and consist of his speeches in the state legislature and in the senate of the Union, his speeches and messages as governor; his discourses before various literary, philosophical and benevolent institutions; his addresses to the army during the late war; his communications concerning the canal; and his judicial opinions; besides various fugitive pieces. As a public character, he is entitled to durable renown. His national services were of the greatest importance; the Erie canal, especially, although his title to the merit of being the originator of the project may be disputed, will always remain a monument of his patriotism and perseverance. He was, also, a promoter and benefactor of many religious and charitable institutions. In the performance of judicial duties, which he was called upon to discharge whilst mayor, and as a member of the court of errors, the highest judicial tribunal of New York, his learning and ability have received unqualified encomium. As a magistrate, he was firm, vigilant, dignified, and of incorruptible integrity. From none of his official stations did he derive any pecuniary benefit, though he had often opportunities of acquiring affluence. As an orator, he was forcible and manly, though not very graceful. Mr. Clinton was twice married. His first wife was Miss Maria Franklin, the daughter of an eminent merchant of New York, by whom he had seven sons and three daughters; of whom four sons and two daughters survive. His second wife was Miss Catharine Jones, the daughter of the late doctor Thomas Jones of New York, a lady of great excellence.

CLIO; daughter of Jupiter and Mnemosyne; the muse of glory and history. Her attributes are, a wreath of laurel upon her head, a trumpet in her right hand, and a roll of papyrus in her left. (See Mythology, Greek.)

CLITUS; Son of Dropis, and brother of Hellanice, the nurse of Alexander the


Great. He was one of the generals of Philip and Alexander, and saved the life of the latter in the battle of the Granicus, by cutting off the hand of Rhosaces, who had just lifted his arm to kill Alexander. Notwithstanding this service, however, Alexander slew him in a fit of intoxication, on account of some irritating words. After the act was performed, he was penetrated with the bitterest remorse.

CLIVE, Catharine, a celebrated comic actress, was the daughter of a gentleman named Raftor, and was born in the north of Ireland, in 1711. When young, she was married to Mr. Richard Clive, a barrister; but the union was unfortunate, and, a separation taking place, she adopted the theatrical profession, in which she attained a distinguished rank. She filled and adorned a variety of comic parts; and, whether she exhibited the woman of good sense, of real fine breeding, the humorous, the fantastic, the affected, the rude, the awkward, or the ridiculous female, in any rank of society, she was sure to fascinate the audience; though her talents were peculiarly adapted to scenes of low life. Her lively, playful humor is exemplified by the following theatrical anecdote:-She performed at Drury lane theatre under the management of Garrick. One night, while playing the lady in Lethe, Mrs. Clive, in turning her head towards the stage-box, chanced to encounter the eye of Charles Townshend. That political wit pointed instantly to an old belle on his left, a very caricature of the ridiculous dame she was portraying on the stage. The actress paused for a moment, and burst into laughter. The galleries caught the jest, and joined boisterously in the mirth, clapping loudly with their hands at the same time. Mrs. Clive at length retired from the stage, of which she had been long a distinguished ornament, and passed the latter part of her life at Little Strawberry hill, near the Gothic villa of Horace Walpole, who, as well as many other persons of rank and eminence, courted her society, attracted by the wit and drollery with which she enlivened her domestic circle. Her death occurred in 1785.

CLIVE, Robert, lord Clive and baron of Plassey, was born in 1725, in Shropshire. He was sent to several schools, but to little purpose, and was said, by all his masters, to be the most unlucky boy in their schools. His father obtained for him the place of a writer in the East India company's service, and, in his 19th year, he went in that capacity to Madras. In 1747, he quitted the civil employment, and entered into the

military service, for which nature had so peculiarly fitted him. During two years, public events gave him little opportunity to distinguish himself; but, when the English thought proper to engage as auxiliaries, in favor of a competitor to the reigning rajah of Tanjore, it was resolved to attack one of his forts named Devi Cotah, in which service Clive acted with great bravery, and was, soon after, appointed commissary to the British troops. About this time, M. Dupleix, taking part with a candidate for the subahship of the Carnatic, succeeded in placing him on the throne, on condition of raising Chundasaheb to the nabobship of Arcot. By this proceeding, he gained a large grant of territory for the French, and the collection of all the revenues in that quarter of the Hindoo empire. The ostentation and insolence with which they afterwards conducted themselves roused the indignation of the English, a body of whom, under the command of Clive, made an attack upon the city of Arcot, the boldness of which measure caused it to succeed; and, after a most complete victory, he returned to Madras, and, in 1753, sailed to England for the recovery of his health. A diamond-hilted sword was voted to him by the East India company, which he only accepted upon condition that colonel Laurence, who had similarly distinguished himself in the action, should receive a like present. He was also presented with the government of St. David's, with the right of succession to that of Madras, and a lieutenant-colonel's commission in the king's service. After a successful attack on the pirate Angria, in conjunction with admirals Pocock and Watson, he repaired to St. David's, but was soon called to Madras, to command the succors sent to Bengal, where the nabob Surajah Dowlah had attacked the English, destroyed their factories, taken Calcutta, and suffocated several of his prisoners in the black hole. Colonel Clive proceeded to Calcutta, and, driving out the enemy, took possession of the city, and, with a very inferior number of men, entered the nabob's camp, and seized his cannon; which alarmed him so much, that he offered terms which were adjusted much to the advantage of the company. The state of things rendering it impossible for this peace to last long, colonel Clive formed the project of dethroning the nabob, the execution of which was confided to Mr. Watts and himself; and one of the nabob's officers, named Meer Jaffier, joined them on condition of succeeding to his master's

dignity. A Gentoo merchant, named Omichund, was engaged to carry on the correspondence between Jaffier and the English; but, demanding a high sum for his services, a double treaty was drawn up, in one of which his demand was inserted, and both were signed; and the first only shown to Omichund, who, trusting to the faith of the English, performed his part. The nabob, suspecting what was going forward, commanded Meer Jaffier to swear fidelity and join his army; and the famous battle of Plassey ensued, in which, by comparatively a small body of troops, the nabob and his army were put to flight, and the company's success decided. To the deep disgrace of colonel Clive and the English, on the affair being decided, Omichund was informed that "the red paper was a trick, and he was to have nothing." The disappointment drove him mad, and, a year and a half after, he died in a state of idiocy. It should also be noticed, that the signature of admiral Watson, who was too honest to sign the paper, was a forgery. The new nabob, Meer Jaffier, who had come over at the close of the action, and had presented Clive with £210,000, now wished to govern without the interference of the English; but, three rebellions rising against him, he was obliged to solicit their aid, and colonel Clive suppressed two, but made a compromise with the third competitor, whom he thought would be a check upon the nabob's becoming too powerful. He was next appointed governor of Calcutta; and, soon after, a large force arrived at Bengal, on pretence of being sent to reënforce the garrisons belonging to the Dutch company. Suspecting that they were invited by the nabob, to destroy the English power, he attacked them, both by sea and land, with great success, capturing all their forces, and drawing up a treaty, signed by the Dutch, who agreed to pay all expenses, on the restitution of their property. For these services, he was created, by the great Mogul, an omrah of the empire, and received a grant of a revenue, amounting to £28,000 per annum from Meer Jaffier. He then again returned to England, where his success was much applauded, without much inquiry as to the means; and, in 1761, he was raised to the Irish peerage, by the title of lord Clive, baron of Plassey. He had not, however, been long in England, before a disagreement took place between Meer Jaffier and Mr. Holwell, who then officiated as governor, which ended in transferring the nabobship from the former to his son-in-law Cossim-Ally-Khan;

but, in consequence of the shameful monopolies and usurpations of the English traders, the new nabob declared the trade of the country free for all. It was, in consequence, resolved to depose him, and restore Meer Jaffier; and, after a temporary success, he was obliged to take refuge with the nabob of Oude. On the news of these commotions reaching England, the company appointed lord Clive president of Bengal, with the command of the troops there; and, in July, 1764, he returned to India, being first created a knight of the Bath. Before his arrival, major Adams had defeated the nabob of Oude, Sujah-ul-Dowlah, and obliged him to sue for peace; so that lord Clive had only to settle terms of agreement with the country powers, which he did to the great advantage of the company, who acquired the disposal of all the revenues of Bengal, Bahar, and Orissa. In 1767, he finally returned to England, being the chief contributor to the immense possessions of the East India company. In 1773, a motion, supported by the minister, was made in the house of commons, "that, in the acquisition of his wealth, lord Clive had abused the powers with which he was intrusted." The charges brought forward in support of this motion had a very serious aspect, but, with the assistance of Mr. Wedderburne, he made such a defence, that it was rejected, and a resolution passed, "that lord Clive had rendered great and meritorious services to his country," which, however, was no contradiction to the motion. From that time, his broken health, and probably his injured peace of mind, rendered him a prey to the most gloomy depression of spirits, under the morbid influence of which he put an end to his life and sufferings, at the age of 50, in November, 1774. A physiognomist would scarcely have been favorable to lord Clive, who possessed a remarkably heavy brow, which gave a close and sullen expression to his features; and he was, indeed, of a reserved temper, and very silent; but, nevertheless, among his intimate friends, could be lively and pleasant. He was always self-directed, and secret in his decisions, but inspired those under his command with the utmost confidence, owing to his great bravery and presence of mind. Lord Chatham characterized him as a "heaven-born general, who, without experience, surpassed all the officers of his time." His talents, in fact, were as great as his political morality was disputable; and, as in the case of Warren Hastings, the services done to his country have paralyzed the disposition to investi

gate too nicely into the character of them. He was member of parliament from 1760 to his death, but seldom spoke; though, when roused, he could display great eloquence. In private life, he was kind and exceedingly liberal. He married the sister of the late astronomer-royal, doctor Maskelyne, by whom he had two sons and three daughters.

CLOACE; subterranean works in Rome, of stupendous size and strength, constructed in the time of the Tarquins, for conducting off the overflowings of the Tiber, the waters from the hills, and the filth of the city. The cloaca maxima, or principal branch, received numerous other branches, between the Capitoline, Palatine and Quirinal hills. It has stood nearly 2500 years, surviving the earthquakes which have shaken down the palaces, churches and towers of the superincumbent city, and still stands as firmly as on the day of its foundation. It is formed of three concentric rows of enormous stones, piled above each other without cement. The height, inside, is 18 Roman palms, and the width about the same.

CLOCK. For many inventions which do honor to the human mind, we are indebted to the monks of the middle ages, who, in their seclusion, free from the necessity of providing for their support, employed the time during which they were not engaged in their devotions in the practice of various arts, both useful and useless. Among the inventions which we owe to them are clocks, or time-keepers, which are set in motion by wheels, pendulums and steel springs. The word horologium was in use, even among the ancients; and it might almost be inferred, from many expressions, that they possessed instruments similar to our pocketwatches and chamber-clocks. It is, however, certain, that their time-pieces were sun-dials, hour-glasses, and clepsydræ. The latter Julius Cæsar brought with him from Great Britain. It was a clepsydra which Cassiodorus, in the 6th century, recommended to his monks, when a cloudy sky prevented them from observing their sundials. The gourmand Trimalchio, described by Petronius, had a clepsydra in his dining-room, and placed a trumpeter near it to announce the hours. Vitruvius mentions an Alexandrian artist, who, 140 years before our era, combined springwheels with the clepsydra; but the account is too confused and incomplete to afford a correct idea of its construction. In an old chronicle, it is related that Charlemagne received a clock (see Automata)

from Haroun al Raschid in 809, to which small bells were attached, and in which figures of horsemen, at the hour of twelve, came forth through little doors, and retired again. There is a more exact description of this work of art in the Franconian annals, attributed to Eginhard, in which it is particularly said to have been a clepsydra, and that, at the end of each hour, little balls of metal fell upon a bell, and produced a sound. It is not probable that the clock which Pacificus, arch-deacon of Verona, is said to have invented in the 9th century, could have been equal to our present clocks. The words on his tomb are so indistinct that nothing positive can be inferred from them. The discovery of clocks has likewise been attributed to the famous Gerbert of Auvergne, who afterwards became pope under the name of Sylvester II, and died in 1003; but Ditmar of Merseburg, a trustworthy witness, only relates that Gerbert placed a horologium in Magdeburg for the emperor Otho, after observing, through a tube, the star which guides the seamen. This must have been a sun-dial, which Gerbert placed according to the height of the pole. In the 12th century, clocks were made use of in the monasteries, which announced the end of every hour by the sound of a bell, put in motion by means of wheels. From this time forward, the expression "the clock has struck" is often met with. The hand for marking the time is also made mention of. Of William, abbot of Hirschau, his biographer relates, that he invented a horologium similar to the celestial hemisphere. Short as this account is, it still appears probable that this abbot was the inventor of clocks, as he employed a person particularly in arranging his work, and keeping it in order. This abbot died at the end of the 11th century. In the 13th century, there is again mention of a clock, given by sultan Saladin to the emperor Frederic II. This was evidently put in motion by weights and wheels. It not only marked the hours, but also the course of the sun, of the moon, and the planets in the zodiac. It is hardly probable that the Saracens learned the art of clock-making from the monks of European monasteries: perhaps, on the contrary, they were the real inventors of it, and the invention was made known to Europeans by means of the crusades. In the 14th century, there are stronger traces of the present system of clock-work. Dante particularly mentions clocks. Richard, abbot of St. Alban's in England, made a clock, in 1326,


makes its circuit in 100 years. more remarkable is the representation of the motions of the planets known at the time of the inventor, and of the systems of Ptolemy and Copernicus. They and their satellites perform their revolutions in exactly the same time as they actually do in the heavens; and these automata not only have the central motion, but their course is also eccentrical and elliptic, like that of the heavenly orbs, and the motion is sometimes slower, sometimes quicker, and even retrograde. This instrument must have been the fruit of deep knowledge, indefatigable research, and the calculations of years. It is much to be re gretted, that the limited means of the artist prevented his machine from being better finished, and that he was not acquainted with clock-making in its present advanced state, and with the excellent instruments which have been invented since his time. The country where watches are manufactured in the greatest numbers is French Switzerland, particularly at Geneva, La-Chaux-de-Fonds, Locle, &c., where they are made by thousands. Among French watch-makers, Berthoud, Breguet, Chevalier, Courvoisier, Preud'homme, and others, are distinguished. England and France have been active in perfecting the art of horology. The elegant Parisian pendulum-clocks are well known, in which the art of the sculptor is combined with that of the machinist. Elegance, however, is their principal recommendation. It is much to be regretted, that the present watches, even the finest, have not the finish which gave such great durability to those of former times. This is particularly the case with French watches. We speak now of the better sort of watches; the ordinary ones are hardly worth the trifling sum which they cost. Wooden clocks are made chiefly in the Schwarzwald, or Black Forest, in South Germany, and furnish an important object of manufacture for this mountainous and barren country. It is said that 70,000 of such clocks are made there annually. Perhaps this account is exaggerated, but great numbers of the clocks are sent to North and South America, and all over Europe. The chief magazine of them is at Neustadt, in Baden. (For information on the construction of clocks and watches, see the article Horology.)

such as had never been heard of till then. It not only indicated the course of the sun and the moon, but also the ebb and flood tide. Large clocks on steeples, likewise, were first made use of in the 14th century. Perhaps Jac. Dondi, in Padua, was the first who made one of this kind; at least, his family was called, after him, dell' Orologio. A German, Henry de Wyck, was celebrated, in the same century, for a large clock which he placed in a tower built by command of Charles V, king of France. This clock was preserved till 1737. Watches are a much later invention, although they have likewise been said to have been invented as early as the 14th century. The general opinion is, that Peter Hele first contrived them in 1510. One of their names was that of Nuremberg eggs (Nürnberger Eier). According to some accounts, the first trustworthy indications of their existence are found at the commencement of the 17th century. The pendulum (q. v.) Huygens (q. v.) invented. The honor of being the inventor of the balance-spring in watches was contested between him and the English philosopher doctor Hooke. To prevent friction, Facio, a Genevan, invented the method of boring holes in diamonds or rubies for the pivots to revolve in, which was found a great improvement. Thus chronometers had their origin, in which the English have attained great perfection. This nation also invented repeaters. An individual of the name of Barlow first made one, in 1676, for king Charles II; and Graham was the inventor of the compensation-pendulum (q. v.), in 1715. This was perfected by Harrison, who formed the pendulum of nine round rods, five of which were of iron and four of brass. With these pendulums the astronomical clocks are still provided, and perfect dependence may be placed in the regularity of their action. Amongst the important inventions of the 18th century, the astronomical clocks of the clergyman Hahn, in Echterdingen, Würtemberg, deserve to be particularly named. (See Hahn.) He formed the idea of measuring time in its whole extent. The principal hand in his instrument is that of universal history. This turns on a table, and indicates the principal epochs of history, according to the chronology of the Old Testament, and the great events of future times, according to the calculations of Bengel, founded on the Apocalypse. Its revolution embraces a period of nearly 8000 years. Another hand on this table marks the year of the century, and

CLOISTER. (See Monastery.)

CLOOTS, John Baptist von; a Prussian baron, better known, during the revolu tionary scenes in France, under the appel

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