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With hope, like this, to live or perish, rebuke was not better calculated to
Is our redemption--duty-joy! conciliate their prejudices, than that Which when our souls shall cease to which had given them offence from its cherish,
apparently paradoxical character. The Those guilty souls, O God! destroy!
objection, therefore, that the words And dare ye, erring ones, endearour,
must have been allusive to a known With insolent sland'rous thought,
place and remembered transaction, Us—from our hallowed truth to sever,
because he must have intended that Truth, by our own Jehovah taught ? they should be level to their immePreach ye a fruitless toleration,
diate apprehension, is nullified by the Which baseness may extort from defect of proof that he had this intenpride ?
tion. Our Israel waits her great salvation, The position that “neither the Jews And breathes no pray’r for aught be- in general, nor the disciples, knew any side!
thing of a descent of their 'Master Yes! that, for which you bid us meanly
from heaven,” would, I think, be met Resign the soul's divinest flame, by the Trinitarian and Arian by the (Which, spite of all, shall shine serenely,) replication, that Christ in this very Is hatefiul to us as your aim !
conversation had asserted the fact. “I The dread tribunals' fire and fetter, came down from heaven :" ver. 38. It Yes,-e'en the taunts from scoffers is not that the acceptation of the words, heard,
as referring to Christ's future ascenAre better to endure-far better
sion, and involving. his pre-existence Than benefits by you conferr'd.
in a state of heavenly glory, is defecThe age of darkness now is bounded,
tive in coherence with the argument, Restoring times are hast'ning on,
that Unitarian believers scruple at In which God's kingdom shall be founded, receiving it; on the contrary, it must
In which all hell shall be v'erthrown. possess a simplicity and connexion in The sentence soon will publish loudly the eyes of those who are prepossessed
Whom glory waits and whom disgrace; in favour of the superhuman nature of Philosophers, who rule us proudly, Christ, which to them must appear Or Jacob's scorn'd and suffering race !
conclusive in favour of its truth. We
reject it because it is inconsistent with Sir,
the general tenor of scripture evidence. THE illustration proposed by J.S. Whether on the Arian or Trinitarian “ What, and if ye shall see the Son of unity and indivisible attributes of God, Man ascend up where he was before?” the real or perfect humanity of Christ, appears to me unsatisfactory. and the pledge of the human resur
The inference that the words“ must rection. have had an allusion to some place The sense affixed to the allusion by where the Jews knew Jesus to have J. S. H. is surely flat and pointless, been," seems to me drawn from weak while the form and manner of the in premises, namely, that “ otherwise terrogation would seem to indicate his question or appeal would not have something of a significant and imporbeen more plain or intelligible than tant bearing; nor does the conclusion the language which had given them supposed appear to be that which offence.” But why should it have would naturally be drawn from the been more intelligible ? Or how does words. The sentence rather implies, it appear that it was so ? The reverse that were he to be seen to re-ascend, is shewn by the fact that they were their unbelief would give way, still dissatisfied, and that “from that If any mountain were alluded to by time many of the disciples went back.” Jesus, it might rather be conjectured
If Jesus alluded to the mountain on to be the “exceeding high mountain,” which he had multiplied the loaves, Matt. iv. 8, which was the scene of his and meant, as your correspondent sup- visionary temptation, and to which his poses, to intimate that if he were again disciples, at least, knew that he had to perform the same, or a similar mi- been carried by the spirit.” This racle, they would still remain uncon- appeal would at least be pertinent and vinced of his being the Christ, the striking.
Mr. Rutt on Negro-Slavery.
281 But it may, I conceive, be safely life,” and illustrated by a plain and affirmed, that neither the ascension, open declaration that he would raise nor the probationary solitude in the his followers from the dead, accompawilderness, is alluded to in the words nied, moreover, by an allusion to his of Jesus; still less can it be admitted crucifixion, (“the bread which I give that the tame and cold interpretation is my flesh, which I will give for the of general Unitarian expositors, rests life of the world,”) he should forbear on any probable or reasonable foun- a more distinct allusion to the circumdation-an interpretation which, ex- stance of his own resurrection, by plaining the question into an allegori- which the “ giving of his flesh for the cal representation of intimate inter- life” of mankind might be elucidated, course with God, stands open to the and which he would naturally appeal same censure of frigid insignificancy to as the test and the proof of the as that offered by your correspondent. truth of his words and mission ? · It is natural to suppose that this But this strange omission has not question of Jesus is connected with, been made; for, by a natural process and dependent on, his preceding dis- of reasoning, he passes directly from course. The subject of this discourse the announcement of a general resuris not absolutely his Messiahship, or rection to that of his own, which was his being really the Christ; but, rela- to precede it and confirm it. He cortively, his being the appointed medium rects their incredulity, and strengthens through which“ life and immortality” his previous asseverations, by an appeal were to be “ brought to light." which they would not at that time
An examination of the context will, understand, any more than they unin my judgment, enable us to ascertain derstood his making himself the antithe sense of this controverted text type of Jonah, but which they were with a clearness little short of de to understand afterwards, when the monstration.
fact bad explained the prophecy : Taking up his metaphor from the “ Doth this offend you? What if ye bread which he had multiplied on the shall see the Son of Man ascend up mountain, he asserts of himself, not where he was before ?" Vill ye then merely that he is the “ bread of God," doubt that “ my flesh is the bread of the bearer of spiritual food from hea- life, which I will give for the life of ven, but that he is the “ bread which the world,” when
the gives life to the world;" that “a man Son of Man himself ASCEND UP OUT may eat thereof, and not die.” The OF THE GRAVE, AND STAND AGAIN metaphor is continued and repeated, UPON THE EARTH ?” under various forms, through vers.
EBION. 33, 35, 48, 50, 51, 54, 57, 58. Though purposely enveloping his discourse in figure, he allows his general meaning
Clapton, partly to appear, for the benefit of SIR,
May 9, 1823. those who were willing to understand I readers who were well acquainted him, and candidly disposed to accept his claims on sufficient evidence ; for with your valuable correspondent Mr. he accompanies the words, “Whoso Cooper, while he was a student in the eateth my desh hath eternal life," by Unitarian Academy, the dissolution the illustrative clause, “ and I will of which, from the failure of pecuraise him up at the last day.” The niary support, is a just opprobrium to same intimation is thrown out in vers. that class of Unitarians whose opu39, 40, 44. Now, is it not natural lence has found a safe harbour, amidst to expect that he would have made the wrecks suffered by so many of some reference to his own personal their neighbours. I then had frequent resurrection, which is the pattern and occasions to observe Mr. C.'s diligent the pledge of the resurrection of the preparation for a station of public righteous to eternal life? How is it usefulness, and I was well aware of to be accounted for, that, in so accu- the pure motives with which he acmulative and elaborate a series of cepted the offer of a benevolent Weststatements of a predictive character, India proprietor, who, with a comall referring to the great fact that he passionate feeling, worthy a pupil and was the "
prince," or leader, “ of a munificent friend of Wakefield, but VOL. XVIII,
without his correct judgment, déter- low-creatures, without any consideramined on the hopeless project of uni- tion of feeling or humanity, should ting the iron and the clay, mental continue to be treated as if they liberation and corporal bondage, the were senseless and material objects? gentle accents of Christian instruction That the wife should be separated and the horrid echoes from a driver's from the husband, the mother from whip.
the child, and sold for the payment I have taken no small interest in of the debts of the profligate and unMr. Cooper's communications to your thinking master ? Such was the depages, as the result of his mortify- graded condition in which the Slaves ing experience, well knowing the were placed in our colonies, that any judgment, integrity, and entire ab- crime or atrocity on the part of a sence of all angry feeling, by which white man would go unpunished, if they were dictated. I was, therefore, committed in the presence of Blacks not a little surprised to find that the only, whose evidence was not receivatruth of his relations, as, also, his con- ble in a court of justice. There were duct and his motives, had been pub- many other circumstances of similar licly impeached. The proceedings in oppression, but it was not his wish, the House of Commons, on the pre- or that of the petitioners, to exaggesentation of the petition from South- rate the facts of the case. All that wark, on the 27th of March last, I they wished was, to call the attention happened not to have read, but re- of Parliament to the indispensable neceived the first information on the assity of interference. subject from Mr. Cooper's letter (pp. « On the motion for bringing up 231-234). Still further to explain the petition, that letter, you will, I dare say, allow Mr. Bright was impelled by a me to quote the following extracts strong sense of duty to notice the from the Morning Chron. No. 16829, gross exaggerations which the petition which Mr. C. says he had “not at contained; such, for instance, as that hand” at the time of writing. there was not a Negro on whom the
“ Sir Robert Wilson said it was im- marks of the lash were not visible. possible, without the greatest pain, He was perfectly confident, that if the to read the recital which the petition allegations of the petition were strictly contained, on authority of the most examined, they would be found to respectable nature, of the inhumanity contain much more falsehood than with which Slaves were treated in the truth. As to the character of the inWest Indies. It was impossible to dividual, to whose authority the petireflect, without the greatest pain, that tioners referred, he knew nothing of near a million of our fellow-creatures it. But it appeared that he had been were every morning awakened from sent out as a Missionary to his estate, their slumbers by the echo of the by a benevolent Planter, who had horsewhip, and were then driven like proved the humanity of his disposition cattle, or worse than cattle, to be em- by reducing the labour which used to ployed in the severest labour at the be performed by his Slaves a fourth. discretion, or rather at the caprice, of After having been so sent out, what did a tyrannical overseer. It was stated that person do? He was there three in the petition, that a very respectable years, and he complained that he had individual, who had been a Missionary been able to preach to the Negroes to one of the islands, declared that he only eleven times a year ; but preachhad never seen a Black who did not ing was not the way to do them good. bear on his flesh the marks of the His duty was to have visited them, to severe infliction of the whip [hear, have seen to their wants, to have rehear! we believe from Mr. Bright) lieved their necessities. The indiviThe Honourable Gentleman cried hear, dual in question, however, had too hear! but he (Sir R. Wilson) would much spiritual pride to do any thing read the paragraph in the petition. but preach; and yet it was on the [This the Honourable Member did, authority of such a man that the petiand it was to the effect of the state. tioners called on the House to believe ment which he had just made.] Was the allegation of their petition. it to be endured, that in these enlight- “ Mr. W. Smith said he was very ened times, near a million of our fel- much inclined to follow the advice of
Mr. Rutt on Negro-Sluvery.
283 the Right Honourable Gentleman," reproached them many years ago, are (Mr. Canning, who wished not yet to signing declarations of independence discuss the question,) " though the with one hand, and with the other personal attack of an Honourable Gen- brandishing the man-driver's whipileman, (Mr. Bright,) in a sort of parable, was very little calculated to put
“ He finds his fellow guilty of a skin an end to discussion. Though he did
Not colour'd like his own; and having not personally know the individual al
T enforce the wrong, for such a worluded to, he could, from what he had
thy cause heard of him, give a direct contra- Dooms and devotes him as a lawful diction to the imputation of the Ho- prey : nourable Gentleman.
Chains him, and tasks him, and exacts “ Mr. Bright explained that he was
his sweat not personally acquainted with the in- With stripes, that Mercy with a bleeddividual referred to."
ing heart From the Times and the Morning
Weeps, when she sees inflicted on a Post it appears that Mr. Cooper was
beast.” named by Sir R. Wilson. Mr. W. If the advocacy of a system, thus Smith, according to the latter news. characterized by a poet, accurately, as paper, availed himself of his long ex- in the plainest prose, be the price of a perience, the result of a most exem- seat in Parliament, then let virtuous plary attention to this subject. “ He ambition "weigh well the wages with wished the Honourable Member, be- the work assigned.” If to deserve and fore he made the speech he had made, retain that seat, the most authentic had looked into the parliamentary an- and respectable testimony must be imnals of thirty-five years past, where peached, and the purest motives misrehe would have found the Members for presented, because the back of some Bristol using exactly the same argu-Negro or of some Negress may possiments, not only against the abolition bly be found unfurrowed by the driver's of the Slave Trade, but against any scourge, then let the meanest mechanic modification of it.”
of Bristol, or the bind whose daily From what I have heard of “the bread is dependent on his daily toil, be Honourable Member for Bristol,” to grateful to Providence for the favourwhom I am an entire stranger, I able distinction, while he feels on the should have expected that these re- comparisou that “the post of honour corded examples of too many of his is a private station.” predecessors, during "thirty-five years I am old enough to recollect when, past,” would have become warnings in the year 1792, Negro-Slavery was against lending himself to advocate advocated by another Member of Parwhat is too justly called (p. 242) the liament, from whom, also, better “ inhumanity of Bristol,” rather than things might have been expected. encouragements, to pursue such an That gentleman, who has long emioccupation. A gentleman so inti- grated to the United States, then mately connected with the good sense justly boasted that “he had been and liberal policy, the justice, huma- educated by Dr. Priestley and the fanity and Christian spirit, which are ther of Mrs. Barbauld,” whose not sparingly found in that city, would timents he had imbibed,” for “in the have been, I had supposed, ambitious early part of his life, he was strongly to represent these, rather than to be in favour of the abolition.” He was, the representative of her rum pun- however, the son of a West - India cheons and sugar hogsheads, or even of Proprietor, and “Jeft England for Jayillas and equipages, dearly purchased maica,” where, he says, “ he found by the whip-extorted labours of our the situation of the Slaves much betbratalized brethren, who bear “God's ter than he had imagined. Setting image though cut in ebony." Well aside liberty, they were as well off as might the poet of the Task exclaim of the poor in Europe," and then, after the white-man, as he discovers himself having admitted this trifling exception in those isles of the blessed, the West of liberty, he proceeds to describe the Indies ; or arnong those shameless blessings of Negro-Slavery; as your Republicans, the slave-holders in the readers will find the tantalizing detail United States, who, as Mr. Day justly in Mr. Clarkson's History (II. 379).
I am happy to add, on the same of suffering with those proverbially authority, (p. 383,) that this Member unfortunate quadrupeds, by whose aid of Parliament “ declared in a future “ the Honourable Member for Bris. stage of the debate, that he wished to tol” may, perhaps, be now posting to see a prudent termination, both of the Parliament, there to expose the enSlave Trade and of Slavery, and that, thusiastic humanity of fanatics, and though he was the eldest son of his to vindicate the endangered reputation father, he never would, on any con- of the West-India Slavery. sideration, become the owner of a Dr. Williamson, no fanatical preachSlave.” Were “the Honourable Mem
er of human equality, shall describe ber for Bristol” once to contemplate this Slavery. He witnessed, as evithis subject as a man, and especially dently no rare occurrences, laceraas a Christian, rather than as a re- tions which tear up the skin" repeated tained advocate of “West-India in- till “ the parts become insensible,” terests,” I should not despair of his when “new sources of torture must listening to the whisper from his in- be found out by which the commission ternal monitor, abi et fac similiter. of crime may be checked. I blush,"
J. T. RUTT.
to reflect that white men should be the directors of such dis
graceful deeds." He shews his readers P.S. When I wrote the above, I had
a large heavy whip” in “the driver's not met with the pamphlet entitled lands, and describes “the frightful “ Negro-Slavery,” on reading which, sound” heard “ every minute in passthe conduct of the Honourable Mem- ing through estates." This is “ the ber for Bristol” appears still more crack of the lash,” which “ when a unaccountable, if we admit the undis- Negro seems to be tardy at his work," puted principles of equity, which are perhaps“ incapable of the usual laacknowledged to direct the intercourse bour of the healthy—the driver sounds between man and man. It had been
near him, or lets him feel it as he inexcusable in an advocate of “ West- thinks proper;" nor is the Negress India interests,” not to have read exempted from this discipline of the this pamphlet with the most diligent whip, while “ the impression made attention. Reading it, indeed, with upon the passenger, who is probably a any degree of attention, he must have stranger, is horrible indeed. If,” says discovered not only the dispassionate he, si in a warm day, we pass by a terms in which Mr. Cooper expresses gang” (their backs being then uncohimself, but the facts to which he ap- vered), “ it is a reproach to every peals as an eye-witness, and especially white man to observe in them the rethe powerful corroboration of his tes- cently lacerated sores, or the deep furtimony, which immediately follows in rows which, though healed up, leave
Evidence of John Williamson, the marks of cruel punishments.” M. D.” (p. 71,) certainly no willing These he justly reprobates as evidence against the system of Negro- perishing testimonials of uncalled-for Slavery, for the continuance of which cruelty. he is unequivocally an advocate.
I know not whether “ the HonourThis physician resided in Jamaica able Member for Bristol” will allow from 1798 to 1812. In 1817 he pub- himself to join Dr. W. with Mr. Cooper lished “Medical and Miscellaneous in a common charge of "gross exObservations relative to the West In- aggerations,” or how he will receive dia Islands,” dedicated “ to the Earl my animadversions, not unjust, I beof Harewood, on whose estate, in the lieve, however unceremonious, on the Vale, Jamaica, he had lived for about language which he is reported to have four years in a professional capacity." uttered in that privileged place, where, Dr. Williamson sufficiently, though alone, libels are legalized. Should be incidentally, proves all which the jus- be convinced that he has ill-treated tification of Mr. Cooper's testimony Mr. Cooper, it inay be fairly expected, can possibly require. He discovers from a regard to his own reputation, to us our brethren and sisters, the (for Mr. Cooper's can receive little inNegroes and Negresses of Jamaica jury from the ipse dixit even of a brutalized under the driver's whip, Member of Parliament,) that he will and reduced to, at least, a community hasten to inake his amende honorable,