Imatges de pàgina

Stapleton and Bellarmine do deny that any proof can be brought: these instances following may be considered.

In the book of Tobit, “ It shall bring my father's old age with sorrow, sic adov, unto hell :" what can it import else, but that which is in other words expressed, “I shall bring my father's life with sorrow, els tòv rápov, unto the grave?" In the 93d, and 113th Psalms, according to the Greek division, or the 94th, and 115th, according to the Hebrew; where the Hebrew hath 1017, the place of silence, meaning the grave, as our adversaries themselves do grant, there the Greek hath Hades, or hell. In Isaiah, chap. 14. ver. 19.where the vulgar Latin translated out of the Hebrew,“ Descenderunt ad fundamenta laci, quasi cadaver putridum: They descended unto the foundations of the lake or pit, as a rotten carcass :" instead of the Hebrew 73, which signifieth the lake or pit, the Greek, both there and in Isaiah, chap. 38. ver. 18. putteth in Hades, or hell; and on the other side, Ezechiel, chap. 32.ver. 21. where the Hebrew saith, “ The strong among the mighty shall speak to him out of the midst of Sheol, or hell;" there the Greek readeth, εις βάθος λάκκου, or εν βάθει βόθρου, in the depth of the lake, or pit: by hell, lake and pit, nothing but the grave being understood; as appeareth by comparing this verse with the five that come after it. So in these places following, where in the Hebrew is Sheol, in the Greek Hades, in the Latin Infernus or Inferi, in the English Hell, the place of dead bodies, and not of souls is to be understood. “ Yem shall bring down my grey hairs with sorrow unto hell;” and “ Thy" servants shall bring down the grey hairs of our father with sorrow unto hell;" where no lower hell can be conceited, into which grey hairs may be brought, than the grave. So David giveth this charge unto Solomon concerning Joab: “ Leto not his hoary head go down to hell in peace;" and

k Chap. 3. ver. 10.
m Gen. chap. 44. ver. 29.
• 1 Kings, chap. 2. ver. 6.

I Chap. 6. ver. 14.
n Ibid. ver. 31.

in the ninth verse concerning Shimei : “ His hoary head bring thou down to hell with blood." “ Ourp bones are scattered at the mouth of hell." Thy pomp is brought down to hell : the worm is spread under thee, and the worms cover thee.” “ In' death there is no remembrance of thee: in hell who shall give thee thanks ?” of which there can be no better paraphrase, than that which is given in Psalm 88. “ Shalls thy loving kindness be declared in the grave ? or thy faithfulness in destruction? Shall thy wonders be known in the dark ? and thy righteousness in the land of forgetfulness ?”

Andradius in his defence of the faith of the council of Trent, speaking of the difference of reading which is found in the sermon of Saint Peter," where God is said to have raised up our Saviour,“ loosing the sorrows of death,” as the Greek books commonly read, or “ the sorrows of hell," as the Latin, saith for reconciliation thereof, that “ there will be no disagreement betwixt the Latin and Greek copies, if we do mark that hell in this place is used for death and the grave, according to the Hebrews' manner of speaking: as in the 15th Psalm, which Peter presently after citeth; Because thou wilt not leave my soul in hell; and Isaiah, chap. 48. For hell cannot confess unto thee. For when he disputeth,” saith he,“ of the resurrection of Christ, he confirmeth by many and most evident testimonies of David, that Christ did suffer death for mankind in such sort, that he could not be overwhelmed with death, nor long lie hidden among the dead. And it seemeth to me, that by the sorrows of hell or death, a death full of sorrow and miseries is signified, according to the Hebrews' manner of speaking: as in Matthew, chap. 24. the abomination of desolation is taken for an abominable desolation.” Thus far Andradius: clearly forsaking herein his fellow-defenders of the Tridentine faith, who by the one text of loosing the sorrows of death, would fain prove Christ's descending to free the souls that were tormented in purgatory; and by the other of not leaving his soul in hell, his descending into Limbus to deliver the souls of the fathers that were at rest in Abraham's bosom.

P Psalm 141. ver. 7.

9 Esai. chap. 14. ver. 11. r Psalm 6. ver. 5.

s Ver. 11, 12 " Acts. chap. 2. ver. 24.

u Nullum erit inter Latina Græcaque exemplaria dissidium, si animadvertamus infernum hoc loco pro morte atque sepulchro, Hebræorum dicendi more, usurpari : ut Psal. 15. quem mox Petrus citat ; Quoniam non dereliquisti animam meam in inferno. Et Esai. cap. 38. Quia non infernus confitebitur tibi. Nam cum de Christi resurrectione disserat ; multis atque apertissimis Davidis testimoniis confirmat, ita pro humano genere mortem Christum obiisse, ut morte obrui et delitescere inter mortuos diu non posset. Videtur autem mihi per dolores inferni sive mortis, mortem doloris atque miseriarum plenam, Hebræorum dicendi more, significarit : sicut Matthæi cap. 24. abominatio desolationis accipitur pro desolatione abominanda. Andrad. defens. Tridentin. fid. lib. 2.

The former of these texts", is thus expounded by Ribera the Jesuit : “ God" raised him up, loosing and making void the sorrows of death, that is to say, that which death by so many sorrows had effected; namely, that the souls should be separated from the body." His fellow Sa interpreteth “ the loosing of the sorrows of death” to be the “ delivering of him from the troubles of death: although sorrow,” saith he, “ may be the epithet of death, because it useth to be joined with death.” The apostle's speech hath manifest reference to the words of David, 2 Samuel, chap. 22. ver. 5, 6. and Psalm 18. (al. 17.) ver. 4, 5. where in the former verse mention is made of ninsan, the sorrows of death, in the latter

, the Psalms translated wdīves idov, the sorrows of hell; in 2 Samuel, chap. 22. ver. 6. údives' Davátov, the sorrows of death ; according to the explication following in the end of the self same verse. The sorrows of hell compassed me about; the snares of death prevented me; and in Psalm 116. ver. 3. The sorrows of death compassed me,

which by the Septuagint is in the place of ,חבלי שאול of

" Acts, chap. 2. ver. 24.

w Suscitavit illum Deus, solvens et irritans dolores mortis, hoc est, quod per tot dolores mors effecerat, ut scilicet anima separaretur a corpore. Fr. Ribera, in Hose. cap. 13. num. 23.

Quasi dicat, ereptum a mortis molestiis : has enim dolores vocat, quanquam mortis epitheton possit esse dolor ; quod morti conjungi soleat. Emman. Sa, notat. in Act. cap. 2. ver. 24.

y In edit. Aldina et Vaticana; nam Complutensis habet youvia qôov.

and the pains of hell found me, or, got hold upon me; where Lyranus hath this note: “ In’ the Hebrew for hell is put Sheol : which doth not signify only hell, but signifieth also the pit, or the grave ; and so it is taken here, by reason it followeth upon death.” The like explicatory repetition is noteda also by the interpreters to have been used by the prophet, in that other text alleged out of Psalm 16. ver. 10. as in Psalm 30. (al. 29.) ver. 3. Ανήγαγες έξ άδου την ψυχήν μου, έσωσάς με από των καταβαινόντων εις λάκκον. Thou hast brought up my soul from hell, thou hast kept me safe (or alive) from those that go down to the pit." And Job, chap. 33. ver. 22. “"Hyγισε δε εις θάνατον η ψυχή αυτού, η δε ζωή αυτού έν άδη; His soul drew near unto death, and his life unto hell ;' whence that in the prayer of Jesus the son of Sirach is taken, « "Ήγγισεν) έως θανάτου η ψυχή μου, και η ζωή μου ήν σύνεγγυς ίδου κάτω. My soul drew near unto death, and was near to hell beneath." And therefore for hell doth Pagnin in his translation of the sixteenth Psalm, put the grave (being therein also followed in the interlineary Bible approved by the censure of the university of Louvain) and in the notes upon the same, that go under the name of Vatablus, the word soul is (by comparing of this with Leviticus, chap. 21. ver. 1.) expounded to be the body. So doth Arias Montanus directly interpret this text of the Psalm: “Thou" shalt not leave my soul in the grave, that is to say, my body;" and Isidorus Clarius in his annotations upon the second of the Acts, saith that,

my life

במלות שונות. ענין

2 In Hebræo pro inferno ponitur Sheol : quod non solum significat infernum, sed etiam significat fossam, sive sepulturam ; et sic accipitur hic, eo quod sequitur ad mortem. Nic. de Lyra, in Psal. 114.


Soo R. Dav. Kimchi in Psal. 16. ver. 10. Hoc melius ex sua consuetudine explicans, exaggeransque; Nec dabis sanctum tuum videre corruptionem. Aug. Steuchus.

b Ecclesiasticus, chap. 51.

© Censorum Lovaniensium judicio examinata, et academiæ suffragio comprobata. Biblia interlin. edit. ann. 1572.

Non relinques animam meam in sepulchro. Psalm. 16. ver. 10. id est, corpus meum. Ar. Montan. in Hebraicæ linguæ idiotismis, voc. aniina. in sacr. bibl. apparat, edit. ann. 1572.

my soul in hell,” in that place is according to the manner of speech used by the Hebrews, put for “ mye body in the grave or tomb,” lest any man should think that Master Beza was the first deviser or principal author of this interpretation.

Yet him alone doth cardinal Bellarmine single out here, to try his manhood upon : but doth so miserably acquit himself in the encounter, that it may well be doubted whether he laboured therein more to cross Beza, than to strive with himself in the wilful suppressing of the light of his own knowledge. For whereas Beza in his notes upon Acts, chap. 2. ver. 27. had shewed out of the 1st and 11th verses of the 21st chapter of Leviticus, and other places of Scripture, that the Hebrew word wo), which we translate soul, is put for a dead body: the cardinal, to rid himself handsomely of this which pinched him very shrewdly, telleth us in sober sadness, “ that there is a very great difference betwixt the Hebrew why, and the Greek yuxn. For ," saith he, “is a most general word, and signifieth without any trope as well the soul as the living creature itself, yea and the body itself also; as by very many places of Scripture it doth appear.” And therefore in Leviticus, where that name is given unto dead bodies, “one part is not put for another, to wit, the soul for the body; but a word, which doth usually signify the body itself: or the whole at leastwise is put for the part, namely, the living creature for the body thereof. But in the second of the Acts, Yuxo is put, which signifieth the soul alone." Now did not the cardinal know, think you, in his own conscience, that as in the second of the Acts, yuxù is put, where the original text of the Psalm there al


e Heb. pro corpus meum in sepulchro vel tumulo. Isid. Clarius, in Act. chap. 2.

Dico, multum inter vb et yuxriv interesse. Nam wɔest generalissima vox, et significat sine ullo tropo tam animam, quam animal, immo etiam corpus ; ut patet ex plurimis scripturæ locis, &c. Itaque in Levitico non ponitur pars pro parte, id est, anima pro corpore; sed vocabulum, quod ipsum corpus significare solet : aut certe ponitur totum pro parte, id est, vivens pro corpore. At Actor. cap. 2. ponitur yuxn, quæ animam solam significat. Bellarm. de Christ. lib, 4.

cap. 12.

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