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what warmer than in Kentucky. In the low country the heat is very considerable during the summer months, when the peculiar moisture of the atmosphere subjects the inhabitants to bilious and intermitting fever, especially when the winds blow from the south; but the general temperature of the climate is more equal than in other parts of the United States, the country being mostly sheltered by high mountains from the storms of the north-east, and the warm winds of the gulf, which in other places occasion those sudden changes so injurious to health,
Rivers. This state is so well watered, that there is scarcely any part of it more than twenty miles distant from a navigable stream. The Tennessee, or Cherokee river, the largest branch of the Ohio, rises in the mountains of Virginia and Carolina, traverses the eastern parts of this state in a south-west direction, then passing into the Alibama and Mississippi countries, forms a great bend there, crosses the western parts of Tennessee in a northern direction, and after flowing sixty miles through Kentucky, joins the Ohio, fiftyseven miles from the Mississippi, by an outlet 600 yards wide. It is navigable for the largest bow-boats as far as the Mussel Shoals, 250 miles from its mouth, and thence to its passage through the Cumberland mountains, about an equal distance, there is depth of water sufficient for boats of 40 or 50 tons. In the Supplement to the Western Gazetteer, it is said to be navigable 1100 miles. The two upper branches of this river descend from the Cumberland mountains in Virginia. The one known by the name of the Clinch or Pelison river,
is navigable for boats 200 miles from its outlet, which is 150 yards in width. The other, called the Holstein, runs a course of 200 miles, and is navigable for boats of twenty-five tons upwards of 100 miles. It has several branches, the most considerable of which are Watauga and French Broad river. The Hiwassee, Chickomago, and other streams, runs into the Tennessee from the northern parts of Georgia. The Elk, and other streams, run from the southern parts of Tennessee through the Alibama territory to the Mussel Shoals. Duck river, which enters a little above the 46th degree, running a north-west course, is boatable 90 miles from its outlet, near which it receives a very considerable branch, called Buffalo river, running in a northerly direction. The Cumberland river, which rises in the mountains in the south-eastern parts of Kentucky, traverses the middle parts of Tennessee in its long and irregular course to the Ohio, with which it unites in the western corner of the state of Kentucky, ten or twelve miles above the mouth of the river Tennessee. This river is navigable for boats of twenty tons burthen to Nashville, situated on its southern bend, and small craft ascend 150 miles higher. Before the establishment of steam-boats, the voyage from New Orleans to Nashville required about sixty days. A number of small streams run into the Cumberland on the southern side. The western parts of Tennessee are watered by several short streams which run a westerly course into the Mississippi, the Forked Deer river, the Chickasaw, the Obian, and Reel Foot.
Minerals.-Iron ore in great abundance on the
south side of the Cumberland river, and in the districts of Washington and Hamilton. Lead ore abounds in French Broad river, and gives 75 per cent. of metal. Ore of Copperas, (sulphate of iron,) in great plenty in Warren county, in West Tennessee. There are rocks which furnish millstones of a tolerable good quality. Slate is found in West Tennessee. Two large beds of Gypsum have lately been discovered in Ovaton county, 80 west of Nashville, near Cumberland river. Limestone in many parts forms the bed on which the vegetable soil reposes. Alum exists in the county of Warren. Nitre in great plenty in the caverns or subterraneous places, some of which are of great extent. The Big Bone Cave, in White county, several miles in length, is said to contain an immense quantity, which is sold at 12 cents a pound. Of Salines, or salt springs, there are several on the upper branches of the Tennessee which issue from the crevices of a limestone rock that lies at the depth of ten or twelve feet below the surface; others are situated at about eighty miles above Nashville, and within one mile of the Cumberland river. On a navigable branch of this river there is a spring so strongly impregnated, that salt remains undissolved in it; but no manufacture is established for extracting it, the consumption being supplied from King's or Prestone's works in Virginia, from which the salt is transported to East Tennessee by the north Fork of the Holstein, and it is conveyed to the western parts by the Tennessee river.
Mineral Waters.-Near French Broad river there
are springs so warm as to create an unpleasant sensation when applied to the body. They are frequented by valetudinarians from the Carolinas, Georgia, and the southern parts of Virginia, who have experienced their salutary effects in various disorders.
Forest Trees and Plants.-Oak of different species, black and white walnut, beech, red cedar, black and honey locust, ash, elm, mulberry, dogwood, sassafras, maple sugar-tree, papaw, cherry, hornbeam, and cucumber tree. In the eastern district there is a spécies of pitch pine useful for boards, timber, and tar. Red cedar, near the sources of some of the rivers, grows forty feet high, and four in diameter. The wild plum and crab-apple give a fine fruit. Cane, on the lowlands, grows to the height of twenty feet. The wild strawberry is of a delicious flavour. The wild grape vine yields tolerable grapes. Of Plants, the following are indigenous wild hop, ginseng, Virginia, and the Seneca snake root, angelica, red bud, ginger, sweet anise, and spikenard, Carolina pink, Lobelia spicewood, senna, Indian physic. Of Grasses, wild rye, wild oats, clover and buffalo grass.
Animal Kingdom. Mammoth. The bones of this animal were discovered near the upper branches of the Tennessee, at the depth of from three to seven feet, in a marshy soil near the salt-springs, which we have just noticed. Another animal formerly inhabited this region, armed with immense claws, one of which, though in a state of decay, found in a nitrous cave in White county, in 1810, weighed one pound and a half. Large herds of bisons were seen after the
first white settlements were formed; but they have now nearly disappeared. The elk and moose inhabit some of the mountainous parts, but are not numerous. The deer, constantly pursued by the hunter, have also become scarce, except on the mountains. Bears, panthers, wild cats, wolves, are yet seen in the forests, but seldom visit cultivated places; the beaver, otter, musk-rat, on the upper branches of Cumberland and Kentucky rivers. Racoons, foxes, squirrels, opossums, rabbits, polecats, minxes, are very numerous. Pheasants, partridges, pigeons, swans, wild turkeys, ducks, and geese. Parroquets frequent the salt licks.
Fishes.-There are catfish, some of which weighed 100 pounds. Buffalo fish, red horse, salmon trout, different from those of New England. Gar, perch, drumfish, eels. In the year 1799 a fish was caught in the river Holstein, near Knoxville, six feet in length, armed with scales, which being struck with a flint, gave fire. Alligators have been seen in Canyfort, a branch of the Cumberland.
Population.-The number of inhabitants in 1791 was 35,691; 1795, 77,262; 1800, 105,602; 1810, 261,727, of whom 44,535 were slaves. Of this number 104,367 were of East Tennessee, and 160,360 of West Tennessee.
Manners and Character.-The population of this state, consisting chiefly of emigrants from the Carolinas, Virginia, and Georgia; from the New England states and Europe, has scarcely any uniform character. They are said to be somewhat rough in their manners, but high-spirited and hospitable. A taste for reading