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Had the words, e-se, been omit. idently had not seen, are both ted, we might have a shadow of made to John Cabot ; the first doubt, whether noviter inventis to the father and his three sons, might not have referred to the and the last to John Cabot, the discoveries of Columbus. But father only. He errs also in these words remove all doubts placing this second voyage in on the subject. It is demon- 1497 : misled doubtless, like strated therefore that Cabot's other writers, by mistaking the first voyage was anterior to this date of the commission. Mavor commission : and as it was after however mentions, that Cabot the first voyage of Columbus, it sailed on the 4th of May ; and if must have been in 1494 or 1495. So, the time from May 4, to June
It is not improbable, that the 11, is the usual time required to first voyage might have been un- perform the voyage. dertaken with some secresy, with Dr. H. in page 230, copies the a view to secure to the crown of account of Smith, who, in his England the benefit of a prior history of New York, mentions discovery of an unknown coun- the building of fort Good Hope try, by anticipating the Dutch or on the Connecticut in 1623. It French.
is true he gives other authorities, The license for Cabot to take which contradict this account. six vessels in any port of Eng. But we cannot justify the inserland, is dated February 3, in the tion of Smith's account. It is 13th of Henry ; therefore was probably an error of the press, in 1498 ; and this is the year in as Smith, in the next sentence, which Stowe has placed Cabot's states that the land on the Convoyage, p. 480. This was his necticut was not purchased by second voyage, in which he dis- the Dutch till 1632. But how covered the Continent on the ever this may be, the full and Coast of Labrador, and as Stowe explicit account of the settlerelates, on the 11th of June, ments of the Dutch and English which must be the 22d new on that river, in Winthrop's style. Now Colunibus, it is a- journal, leave not a particle of greed, did not discover the main doubt as to the fact. Fort Good land of South America till the Hope was not erected till the first of August, 1498. Sebastian spring of 1633, and a little before Cabot, therefore (or John, bis the arrival of the Plymouth father, if with him) was the traders. The Dutch purchasfirst discoverer of the American ed the land January 8, 1633, Continent. These conclusions and proceeded to establish themfrom authentic documents seem selves at that place. The Plyto admit of no question.
mouth people under William Mavor, vol. I. p. 106, Am. ed. Holmes arrived in October, has mentioned the first voyage
of of the same year, and disCabot in 1494 ; but errs in sup. regarding the menaces of the posing John Cabot, the father, to Dutch, built a trading house be dead, and the new Commission above, as Winthrop says, about a to be granted to the sons ; for mile ; as Stuyvesant says, a good the Commission in 1496 and the shot distance. But tradition fixes license in 1493, which Mavor ev. the place near the confluence of the Tunxis with the Connecti- occasion, and the peculiar charcut, in Windsor, which is five or acter of an auditory, are frequentsix miles above where Good ly overlooked, or not duly regardHope stood. This point of his- ed. But the effect of a discourse, tory can admit of no doubt ; for in no inconsiderable degree, ofwe have the Dutch records to ten depends on an attention to vouch for the fact, and these per- those circumstances, and to that fectly agree with Winthrop's ac- character. It is remarkable, that count. See Winth. p. 55–78. the discourses of him, who spake Hist. Col. Vol. ii. 262.
as never man spake, were admiraIn page 366, Dr. Holmes says, bly accommodated to the occa " the Swedes at the Delaware sions, which gave rise to them, were extirpated by the Dutch." and to the persons, who heard We object only to the single them. The great apostle Paul, word extirpated. Several Sweda in imitation of his divine Master, ish settlements still exist on and became all things to all men, that near the Delaware.
he might by all means save some. On the whole we have rarely A discourse, that would be intelfound so, much accuracy in a ligible and useful to a select and work composed of such a variety refined auditory, might be lost, if of facts, collected from nume- preached to the poor ; and one rous documents and authorities, that would have a melting influwhich are often obsure and some- ence at an alms-house, might times contradictory. The work produce a chilling effect at a uniis a valuable addition to the versity. stock of American Literature,
These remarks, if just, may,
it and we wait with impatience for is conceived, be advantageously the succeeding volume.
applied to the discourses now under review. The author appears to have possessed, in no
common degree, an aptitude to The Seaman's Preacher; consist.
teach, and to have employed that ing of nine short and plain dis- talent with judgment and effect. courses on Jonah's voyage, ad
Living in a sea-port town, he dressed to mariners. By Rev. doubtless had much intercourse James Ryther, minister at Wafi- with seamen ; and from them he ping, England. Designed to be
seems to have learned every put into the hands of sailors and thing peculiar to their character persons going to sca.
and occupation. Their technical preface by the Rev. John New
terms (if we may call them so) ton. Cambridge. W. Hil
are all familiar to him ; and he liard. 1805.
uses their phraseology, as though It was wisely required by an the sea were his own element. apostle, as a qualification for a In this hazardous attempt to adbishop, or minister of the gospel, dress them in their own way, that he be apt to teach. This lal- Mr. Ryther has succeeded, ent, in whatever degree possess- where, through defect of genius ed by ministers, is oftentimes pot or judgment, thousands would employed in its full extent. The have failed. We call the attempt circumstances of time, place, and hazardous, because there is per
haps no description of men, ligion, every good Christian, and whom, as a distinct class, it were every benevolent citizen, will take more difficult to address, especial- pleasure in promoting the distrily on the momentous subject of bution of this valuable work. The religion, than seamen. Their following passages furnish habits of thought, speech, and ac- specimen of the author's manner. tion, are altogether peculiar; and, Sermon I. entitled “ The Terunless they are appropriately ad- rors of the Stormy Ocean," is on dressed, a discourse, however Jonah, i. 4, 5. After giving well composed, might be worse some account of the prophet Jothan lost upon them. To come nah, and of the city Nineveh, ac, down tothem, without descending companied with brief and useful below them; to awaken their cu- observations, it proceeds : riosity, without dissipating their
In the fourth verse we have God's seriousness ; to entertain their
displeasure in Jonah's punishment. imagination, without misleading But the Lord sent out a great wind into their understanding ; to adopt the sea, and there was a mighty tempest, their language, without savouring so that the ship was like to be broken.
On which of their profaneness; to become, in a word, assimilated to them, commander of the sea.
Observe ; The Lord is the sole
The winds do without indecorous familiarity ; not rise accidentally, but they have this, this is the difficulty. For- their commission from God. Though midable, however, as the task re
Jonah would not obey God's command, ally is, Mr. Ryther has perform- the winds do. Here the Lord sends ed it with skill and ability. The
a pursuivant in a storm after a rebell.
ious prophet. The winds and seas are interesting story of Jonah's voy- God's servants. O let seamen tremage is agreeably illustrated ; and ble at this. God can cause these his from the several incidents, at
servants to execute his will upon them tending it, the most import
when he pleaseth. It is the great sin
of such persons, that they look no ant and practical truths are de
higher than second causes. Every duced. The duties and dan- storm when you are at sea should gers, the temptations and sins, read you a lecture of God.
Observe further; Guilt cannot flee peculiar in some degree to mar
from God ; he can quickly overtako iners, are strikingly delinea
it. It may be expected that guilt carted, and motives to virtue and pi- ried to sea will have a storm after ety are impressively exhibited. it. O tremble, poor seamen, when To all serious and candid readers, you go out, to think of carrying unwhether on land or at sea, it is pardoned guilt abroad with you.
The text contains a discovery of presumed, these discourses may, the effects and consequences of this be highly useful. The class of storm which God sends after Jonah readers, for which they were Then the mariners were afraid. 'It is originally composed, and for not said the passengers, but the mar. which this impression of them is iners were afraid. They are the hara
diest and most undaunted of men ; intended, may read them with being so frequently in these deaths the highest advantage. In the and dangers, they little regard them, prospect of impurting that advan- And yet these persons, who used to tage to those, who have not the encourage the poor trembling pas. ordinary means and opportuni- sengers, are now afraid. They had a
probably been in many storms before. ties for becoming acquainted But there were some things extraorwith the truths and duties of re- dinary in the present case, which
caused this fear to fall upon them. fears, which a sense of danger Now their hearts fail them, and their
creates, we select the following → magnanimity is daunted. This storm
1. If you would be above fears in made them lower their top sails of
storins, then commit the helm to him, courage and self-confidence.
as your pilot, whom the winds and sear The effect was, every one eriet to his
obey. Commit yourselves and your all god ; which argues the greatness of
to him by faith, and seek his direction their fears. It may be, swearing by and protection by prayer. The poor their gods had been their practice,
heathen mariners, you are told, when but now it is praying to them. Storms
they were afraid, cried every one to his will change mariners' notes ;
wil make them serious, and turn their god; but their gods were vanity and
a lie; idols that could not hear nor swearing into praying. It is said help them. Whereas yours is the they cried ; which noies the earnest
living and true God, who has all na. ness of their spirits, as persons in the
ture at his command, and who is utmost distress. It has been a com
made known as a God that heareth mon saying, “ If you will teach a
prajer. Commit thy way unto the inan to pray, send him to sea.” It is
Lord. In all dangers let him steer further said, They cast forth the wares your course; in all troubles seek to that were in the ship into the sea to him for relief. His own word is, Call lighten it ; which still spoke the greut: upon me in the day of trouble; I will ness of their fears.
This is one of deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify me. the last things you do at sea to save It is related, that when a duke of your lives. Šo did they with the ship Saxony and a good bishop in GermaPaul was in. Here you see all en
ny were at variance, the duke sent deavours are used to prevent ship messengers to see what preparations wreck.
the bishop was making, who, on their The observation now to be dis.
return, told him he had made no prepcoursed upon is this ; that storms of arations at all. The duke asked, danger cause storms of fear.
What says he then? They replied, I begin with handling this, as the " He says that he will preach the gos. first part of my intended work is, the pel, visit the sick, and be found in his awakening of the souls of the poor duty; and as for the war, he is re
These mariners were poor, solved to commit the whole of it to blind heathens, as you see by their God.” “Oh then," said the duke, praying to their different gods. Now “ if he be of that mind, let the devil if the glimmering of the light of na
vage war with hiin, if he will; for I ture made them afraid, lest they will not. So if you commit your af. should perish, well may poor sinners, fails to God, by faith and prayer, you who hare the light of the gospel, be
have nothing to fear. afraid when they come into storms, 2. Would ye be above storms and and feel conviction from it in their fears at sea ? Carry not a Jonah in hearts ; knowing that if they suffer
the vessel; carry not guilt with you, shipwreck in a storm, uninterested in
Guilt will sooner or later l'aise a Christ, they shall perish, body and
storm. You see here, that the sea soul, forever. To be sinking at sea, was never quict, wbile Jouah, the and have no bottom for the poor soul gtuilty person, was on board. It was to build its hopes upon ; to be launch
not the lightening of the ship that ing out into that vast ocean of cterni.
stilled the storm. The trunder a conviction of upardoned wrought, and was very tempestuous, till sin, will daunt the stontest mariner,
Jonal was cast overboard; and then and terrify the most hardened sinner
it calmed. One Achan troubles a in the world. The disciples in a whole camp ; and one Jonah endanstorm earnestly cried out to their
gers the whole ship's company, Nor Master, Carest thou not that we per
did the prayers of the mariners seish? With how much greater reason cure them. It is related concerning may profine sinners in storms and
one of the wise men of Greece, when dangers adopt the same cry, lest their
aboard a vessel, on hearing some souls purish!
wirked sailors in a storm, praying to Under the head of directions their gods, that he charged them ta for preventing or allaying those be silent; for, says hç, “ If the gods
know that you are there, they will and it will preserve you safe, and keep drown us all for your sakes." The pour vessel stedfast amidst all the moral is easy. Guilt, and guilty per. winds and waves of this tempestuous sons, may endanger others, as well as sea. Heaven is the Cape of Good Hope; themselves; and the prayers of such thither let your views ever be directpersons will be of no avail. If I re- 'ed; there let your faith and hope be gard iniquity in my heart, says the fixed. psalmist, the Lord will not hear me, 4. If you would be abore fear, 'in Oh, then, let every sin be cast out ; times of danger at sea, carry CHRIST and let your guilt be cast into the sea in the vessel. Secure an interest of Christ's blood; then all will be in him ; se sk a discovery of that intercalm and quiet.
est; and habitually exercise faith in 3. Would ye be above fears in sea lim, as your Saviour. When Cæsar dangers ? See then that your anchor be was once on a voyage, and a heavy rightly cast. Hope is the anchor of the storm arose, by which the sailors soul, as the apostle saitb, which is sure were much intimidated, he called out and stelfast, and which entereth into that to them, “ Fear not; you carry Cæsar.” within the ceil, whither Yesits, the fore. But if you have Christ with you, you Tuizner, is for us entered. Let hope, may say, "A greater than Cæsar is your best anchor, your sheet anchor, here." be fixed on God and Christ in heaven;
Extracts from the Fournal of the Rev. told me, they had not ; that their Fohn Sergeant, Missionary to the young men had sometimes proposod New Stockbridge Indians.
to apply for a school master and
teacher ; but to this their old Chiefs JAN. 1, 1804.
had objected. They informed me, This evening a number of the Munsee Indians, who came from Up- tribes, who speak nearly the same
they were a collection of five different per Canada, by invitation, made me
language ; that in their town were a visit. After supper I conrersed
about sixty fighting men. I told with them upon the importance of re
them, that as soon as they could ligion, inquired of them their num
agree to receive an instructor, they bers and the disposition of their tribe
must apply to some missionary socierespecting civilization and the Chris
ty, and they would undoubtedly ob. tiani religion.
tain one. Their answer was as follows.
On the 7th the same strangers “ Father, we thank you much for made me another visit with their old these good words, you have spoken to Chief. After I had addressed thein us. We have also attended to the on the subject of religion, the old instruction, we have heard in the Chicf answered: “Father, it is by the house of worship, and so far as we goodness of the great, good Spirit, understand, we are well pleased with that we have been brought on our religion. It is true we must fecl journey to this place. We feel very thankful to the great and good Spirit thankful that we have been brought for his goodness to us the year past. to your place of abode. We thank We present are all young men ; you for all the good words, you have are sorry our old Chief could not at- now put into our minds. We never tend this evening. If he had we heard any thing about religion until might have given you a more partic.. - now. We will duly consider these ular and better answer."
great things, and if we are wise and I inquired of them whether they good, we may be happy both here had ever heard any minister. They and hereafter.”