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seed, flax, hemp, wood, linen, yarn, woollen and cotton goods, fine works of art, including articles made of amber. Of the different commercial places, Frankfort on the Oder has three considerable fairs. Magdeburg sends corn, linen, cotton goods, cloths, leather, salt and copper to Hamburg, and to the fairs of Leipsic and Brunswick. It has, besides, a transit trade in colonial goods, wine, grain, &c. Wheat is exported from Dantzic, which possesses the largest granary in Europe; from Elbingen, Stettin, Königsberg, Anclam and Berlin, timber; staves and ashes from Dantzic, Memel and Stettin; hemp, flax and linseed, tallow, wax and hog's bristles from Memel and Königsberg. Tilsit carries on a brisk trade in corn, linseed, hemp and flax. The exports of Brunsberg are woollen yarn, corn and flax. Colberg exports corn, and the other produce of Poland. The trade of Stralsund, likewise, consists chiefly in the exportation of corn. Of all the articles of Prussian commerce, the Silesian linen holds the first rank, and for the manufacturing of it, the Silesian towns Hirschberg, Landshut, Schmiedeberg, Friedland, Waldenburg, Schweidnitz, and the Prussian section of Upper Lusatia, are celebrated. This linen is particularly in demand among the Hamburg, English, Dutch, Italian and South American merchants. The imports which have the readiest sale in Prussia are colonial goods, dye-wood, salt, Buenos Ayres hides, indigo, groceries, wine, silk, cotton goods, hardware, &c.*

the store-house of the inland trade of all Austria, has quite an extensive commerce with England, the Netherlands and France, and important dealings with Italy, Hungary, Poland and Turkey. By the way of Vienna, Germany receives great quantities of raw cotton from Turkey. The commerce of Trieste, in the Littorale, consists chiefly in the exportation of German productions, and of colonial goods, which go from thence to the Levant, and the coasts of the Black sea. Trieste may be regarded as the depot of the productions of the Levant. It is, also, actively engaged in the importation of British wares, and of the produce of the fisheries of Newfoundland. Except this city, the commerce of Austria is confined to Venice and Fiume. The most considerable places of inland trade in the monarchy, besides Vienna, are Lemberg, Prague, Brunn, Brody, Botzen, Pest and Cronstadt. The allowed imports consist mainly of raw produce, cotton and wool, silk, rice, oil, spices, colonial articles, leather, cattle, &c. The articles of export are woollen cloths, linens, cordage, mineral productions, grain and glass. Great profit is derived from the transportation of goods, especially of those of the Levant. In Bohemia, far the greater portion of the trade is in the hands of the Jews, who are numerous in the country. The trade is chiefly in exports-linens, woollens, silks, dye-wood, leather and glass. The glass is superior in polish and cheapness to that of other countries, and the exportation Hanover is not distinguished for its of it is very considerable. It is thought mercantile activity. The exports consist that the goods exported to Spain, Russia, of horses, horned cattle, lead, wax, linen, the Levant and America amount to leather, salt, oats, barley, timber, boards, 2,500,000 guilders, annually. The coun- and the ferruginous copper of the Hartz tries with which Bohemia has the most mountains. The linens are ordinary; the commercial intercourse are Austria, Hol- table cloths and Osnabruck damask are land, Spain, Portugal, Italy and Turkey. inferior in quality to those of Prussia and The exports are rated at from $5,000,000 to Friesland. The surplus of the domestic $6,000,000, and the imports (colonial goods, consumption is exported to South Ameriarticles of luxury, &c.) at from $4,000,000 to ca through the medium of the Hanseatic $5,000,000. Prague is the first commercial cities. The principal imports are English city of the country,Reichenberg, the second. Prussia has likewise, by its system of prohibition, been separated from Germany with respect to free commercial intercourse, especially since 1818. The commerce of this monarchy is promoted by the Baltic, by many navigable rivers, and by canals. The commerce in domestic productions is more important than the transportation and commission trade, which flourishes mainly in Cologne, Magdeburg, Stettin, Minden, Dantzic, Königsberg, Breslau, &c. The exports by sea are grain, wax, tallow, wool, lin

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* The extended frontier of Prussia exposes it very much to smuggling. On this account, Prussia has been lately endeavoring to induce some of the restrictions on their commercial intercourse with smaller states in her neighborhood to abolish all her. Some of the states have acquiesced in this arrangement. These are Bavaria, Wurtemberg, Mecklenburg, the Saxon dukedoms, Hesse-Darmstadt and Brunswick. Some of these have also allowed Prussia to place her custom-houses on their outward frontier, on condition of her paying them a certain sum as a compensation for the customs which she will thus receive. Some other German form the confederacy of Central Germany. These states have united together with similar views, and states are Hanover, Hesse-Cassel, the kingdom of Saxony, and Oldenburg.

manufactures, especially woollen cloths and calicoes, colonial goods, Prussian and Friesland linen, fine French cloths, silks, jewelry and French wines, with all kinds of small articles of luxury, which the Hanoverian merchant brings with him from the fairs of Brunswick, Leipsic, and Frankfort on the Maine. The chief commercial towns are Emden, Hanover and Münden. The commerce of Saxony, Bavaria, Würtemberg, Hesse, &c., may be comprised under the general head of German commerce, as there exists no reciprocal system of prohibition. (See Germany, Trade of; also the separate articles on these countries.) Denmark and Holstein. Although the Danish merchants have formed connexions with all the commercial states of Europe, and play an important part in the commerce both of the Mediterranean and the Baltic, their own country possesses but few productions, important as articles of export. Most of what they export are the productions of their East and West India possessions. To the ports of Petersburg, Riga, Stockholm and Memel, Denmark carries the woollen goods of Iceland and the Faroe islands; salt from Spain, France and Portugal; and the productions of the East and West Indies and of China. To Germany it sends its horses, its cattle, colonial and West India goods, and woollen stockings, receiving in return linen, wool, brandy and wine. To Holland it exports rape-seed, fish, &c., in ́ exchange for groceries. To France, Spain and Portugal it carries horses, fish, and other articles from Russia, in exchange for salt, wine, fruits, sweet oil, brandy, silk, &c. Its trade with England consists, mainly, in exchanging timber, &c., for English manufactures. To Iceland it exports rye-meal, rye, barley, brandy and other spirituous liquors, together with the common articles of consumption; receiving in return fresh, dry, and salt fish, trainoil, tallow, eider down, wool and woollen stockings. It supplies Greenland with flour, spirituous liquors, &c., in return for train and seal-oil, seal-skins, eider down and peltry. The largest commercial towns of Denmark are Copenhagen and Elsinore in Zealand, Aalborg in Jutland, Flensborg and Tönningen in Sleswic, Altona and Kiel in Holstein. The West India colonies of Denmark are St. Croix, St. Thomas and St. John's. On the coast of Coromandel, it possesses Tranquebar; on the coast of Guinea, Christianborg and other small places. It has also small factories on the Nicobar islands. In Europe, it possesses Iceland. The chief commer

cial companies in Denmark are the Asiatic or East India company, the Iceland company, the maritime insurance company, the African or Danish West India, and the general commercial society. In 1824, there were exported from Denmark 2,022,720 tons of grain, 36,562 tons of flour, &c.

France. The commerce of France extends to every country of the world. The exports are wine, brandy, oil, corn, meal, liqueurs, snuff, silks, woollens, fancy goods of all kinds, watches, porcelain, crystals, carpets, bronze, linen, lace, cambric, tapestry, hemp, flax, fruits, capers, salt, jewelry, paper, &c.; and France receives the raw produce of all countries, but very few manufactured goods. In 1824, the value of all the exports of France was 440,542,000 francs, of which 163,056,000 were in natural products, and 277,486,000 in manufactured goods. In the same year, goods were imported into France to the amount of 189,535,000 francs in 3,387 French vessels, to the amount of 108,397,000 francs in 4,183 foreign vessels, and to the amount of 156,929,000 by land; the whole importation amounted to 454,861,000 francs. The principal ports are Bordeaux, Marseilles, Nantes, Havre de Grace, St. Malo, L'Orient and Dunkirk. The commerce of Marseilles is mostly with the Levant and the West Indies; that of Bordeaux, with Asia, the West Indies, and the north of Europe. Calais and Dunkirk carry on a very lucrative contraband trade with England. Havre de Grace is the seaport of Paris, which has a very extensive indirect trade, and dealings in bills of exchange with foreign countries. Amiens exports great quantities of velvet; Abbeville, Elbeuf, Louvier and Sedan trade mainly in cloths; Cambrai, Valenciennes and Alençon, in cambrics and fine laces. Cette, the port of Montpellier, has an extensive trade in Spanish and colonial goods. The commerce of Bayonne is chiefly with Spain. Silks form a principal article of the commerce of Lyons, which is situated in the centre of the roads leading to Switzerland, Spain, Italy and Germany, and has annually four fairs. For Strasburg, its excellent turpentine is an important article of trade. Lille has a direct intercourse, not only with all the commercial states of Europe, but also with the French and Spanish colonies, and with the Levant. The other commercial towns of importance are Rheims, Troyes, Grenoble, Nismes, Angoulême, Cognac, Nantes, Rouen, Rochelle, and Caen. Grenoble supplies France, Italy, Spain, and even


Britain with fine gloves. Beaucaire has an important fair. The French colonies are Martinique, Guadaloupe, St. Lucia and Mariegalante in the West Indies; Cayenne in South America, Pondicherry, Chandernagore, and some other possessions in the East Indies, with several factories on the western coast of Africa and on both sides of cape Verde.

Italy. Although Italy possesses the most excellent harbors on the Mediterranean and Adriatic seas, and has a geographical situation uncommonly favorable for commerce, its trade, both domestic and foreign, is very limited. The cause is to be sought in the impolitic restrictions, heavy taxes and imposts, to which the commercial cities are subjected in this most fruitful, but, for the most part, badly governed country. The chief articles of export from Italy are corn, olive-oil, wine, brandy, silk, cotton, wool, hemp, flax, velvet, damask, barilla (soda), sulphur, sumach, gall-nuts, madder, velani or valonia, and other dye-stuffs, senna leaves, liquorice juice and root, juniper berries and other drugs, anchovies, almonds, figs, nuts, olives, currants, raisins and other fruits, rags, chip and straw hats, the skins of sheep and kids, and marble. The principal commercial cities are Florence, Genoa, Leghorn, Naples, Venice, and Ancona. Leghorn is the main channel of the trade of Italy with the Levant and the Barbary states, and the central point of the commerce of England in the Mediterranean. A great part of its trade is in the hands of the Jews. Silks, taffeta, satins, brocades, light woollen goods, velvets, &c., are the main articles of export from Florence. These pass through Leghorn, and sell readily in the Levant. Milan and Turin carry on a very extensive trade in their silk, which is celebrated throughout Europe for its admirable fineness and lightness. Ancona has intercourse with the first commercial cities of Europe. Its business is chiefly agency and commission business. Some silk is exported from Nice. The exports of Lucca are oliveoil, silk, damasks, fruit, &c. Much oliveoil is exported from Gallipoli. The trade of Genoa continues considerable. Its exports are velvet, damask (which, next to the Venetian, is the most esteemed in Europe), raw silk, fruit, olive-oil, alum, marble, corals, coarse paper, &c. Venice, once the greatest mart of the world, notwithstanding the disappearance of its ancient splendor, is still an important place for commerce, a great part of the trade of Europe with the Levant being yet in

its hands. The Venetian velvets, damasks, mirrors, and manufactured silks, in great quantities, form the most considerable constituents of the foreign trade of Venice. The exports of Naples are oliveoil, wool, silk, tartar, wines, raw and manufactured silk, fruit, sulphur and staves.

The Islands of the Mediterranean Sea. The exports of Sicily, a country on which nature, with profuse generosity, has lavished in abundance all her gifts (the benefit of which, however, is almost destroyed by the weakness of the government), consist of silk, grain, barilla, sulphur, oliveoil, wine, cantharides, sumach, manna, coral, rags, almonds, figs, raisins, nuts, anchovies, amber, goat, buck and sheepskins, pomegranates, oranges, lemons, &c., and pine-apples of remarkable size and exquisite flavor. The chief port is Messina; next to this comes Palermo.

The exports of Sardinia are, chiefly, grain of uncommon excellence, tunnyfish, hides, barilla, salt. Cagliari is the most considerable commercial city.

Corsica exports silk, olive-oil, and black, white and red corals. The silk goes mostly to Genoa and Lyons, and the corals are sold at Marseilles, where they are manufactured and polished, to be sent to Africa, to be sold to the Moors and Negroes. The Corsican ports are Ajaccio, Bastia and Porto Vecchio.

Malta, which is, like Gibraltar, a depot for British and colonial goods that are to be disposed of in the Mediterranean, exports cotton, oranges and other fruits.

The Ionian islands (Cephalonia, Zante, Corfu, Santa Maura, &c.) export wine, brandy, olive-oil, raisins, currants, citrons, melons, pomegranates, honey, cotton and salt. The raisins and currants are superior to those of the Morea in quality. The wine is Muscadel.

The commerce of the island of Cyprus is inconsiderable. It exports cotton, wool, silk, wine, salt, turpentine, Turkish leather, &c. Its largest commercial cities are Larnica and Rhodes.

The exports of the island of Candia, which, by its situation, is designed for the mart of the European, Asiatic and African trade, consist of oil, soap, wax, wine, linseed, raisins, almonds, laudanum, St. John's bread (the fruit of the ceratonia siliqua), &c.

The Netherlands and Holland. The chief commercial cities of the Belgic Netherlands are Antwerp, Ghent and Östend. Antwerp is the mart of the commerce of the North of Europe. Since the opening of the Scheldt, it has been

gradually recovering its mercantile prosperity, and, in all probability, on account of its excellent central situation, its local advantages, and because it is the channel through which most of the commerce of the Dutch passes, will one day be of the first commercial importance. The exports of Antwerp consist, principally, of wheat, beans, clover-seed, linen, laces, carpets, tapestry, and all the manufactures of Brussels, Mechlin, Ghent and Bruges. The articles of export from Ghent are wheat, fine linen, flax, hemp, beans, &c.; those from Ostend are wheat, clover-seed, flax, tallow, hides, and the linen of Ghent and Bruges.-The chief exports of Holland, the commerce of which has revived since 1814, and employs, every year, 4000 vessels of various descriptions, are butter, cheese, linen, cloth, drugs and paints, fish, wheat, linseed, clover-seed, geneva (gin), dye-stuffs, paper, &c. The principal commercial cities in Holland are Amsterdam, Rotterdam and Groningen; then follow Liege, Middelburg, and the ports of Briel, Delftshaven, Dort, Enckhuysen, Medenblick, &c. Before the decline of Dutch commerce, Amsterdam was one of the greatest commercial cities of the world, the mart of goods from the East and the West, and from the principal states of Europe. At the time when the Dutch were in exclusive possession of the spiceries of the East, of the silks of the East Indies and China, and of the fine East India cotton goods, they dressed in coarse cloth, and were satisfied with a very frugal mode of living. The fine cloths which they themselves manufactured, they destined wholly for foreign countries, and, for their own use, purchased coarse cloth in England. At that time, they likewise sold the superior butter and cheese which they made, and, for their own use, bought the cheaper sorts from England and Ireland. To the exchange and banking business, of which the channel was Amsterdam, the Dutch were also, in part, indebted for their great prosperity. With Hamburg, Amsterdam is yet the centre of the exchange business between the North and the South of Europe, although, from the time that the credit of the bank of Amsterdam diminished, this branch of business has declined, a great portion of it being transferred to Hamburg and London. The imports are grain, wood, coal, tallow, wax, rags, &c. For the colonial trade of Holland, the possession of Batavia, Amboyna, Banda, Ternate, and Macassar, in the East Indies, is of importance, as are also the

commercial settlements on the Coromandel and Malabar coasts, and those at Bantam, Padang, Japan, &c. In Africa, Holland has some forts in Guinea; in America, she possesses Surinam, and the West India islands of Curaçao, St. Eustatia and St. Martin.

Poland. The exports of Poland consist of corn, hemp, flax, lumber, linseed, tallow and salt. Its commerce is inconsiderable, and is almost wholly in the hands of the Jews. Warsaw and Cracow are the two largest commercial cities. The former has two fairs every year. Cracow has a situation very favorable to commerce, but the principal article of its trade is furnished by the celebrated saltmines of Wieliczka, situated in the neighborhood. At the fairs of Leipsic and Frankfort on the Oder, Poland is supplied with manufactures, and all articles of luxury, in exchange for hare-skins and other productions.

Portugal. The Portuguese exports are, chiefly, white and red Port wine, Lisbon and Calcavella wine, salt, oranges, lemons and other fruit, cork, silk, wool, sweet oil, &c. To England are sent Port wine, Lisbon, Calcavella, Madeira and Canary wines, salt, oranges, lemons, cork, &c.; in return for which the Portuguese obtain British manufactures and colonial goods, provisions, corn, meal, copper, lead, coal, &c. Their exports to the North of Europe are wine, salt, fruit, &c.; for which they receive hemp, flax, corn, iron, timber, tar, pitch, stock-fish, and Russian and German linen. The chief commercial cities are Lisbon, Oporto, and Setubal, commonly called St. Ubes. The foreign possessions of Portugal are, the cities of Goa and Diu in the East Indies, together with a part of Timor, the factory of Macao in China, the Azores, Madeira and Puerto Santo in the Atlantic, the cape Verd islands, those of St. Thomas, Angola, and some settlements in Guinea and on the western coast of Africa, with Mozambique, Melinda and other settlements on the eastern coast.

Russia. Russia exports, principally, iron, hemp, flax, cordage of all kinds, tallow, hides, fir and oak timber, boards, planks, laths, spars, pitch and tar, together with all kinds of grain, especially wheat, linen, canvass of various kinds, wax, honey, bristles, suet, soap, isinglass, caviare, leather, train-oil, hemp-seed, linseed and tobacco. The chief commercial cities are Tobolsk, Irkutsk and Tomsk, in Siberia; Astrachan, Orenburg and Kasan, in Asiatic Russia; Moscow and Novgorod, in

the interior of Russia; Archangel, on the White sea; Libau (though very much decayed) in Courland; Taganrog, Caffa or Theodosia, Odessa, Cherson, Sebastopol and Azoph, on the Black sea and the sea of Azoph; Riga, Pernau, Narva, Revel, Petersburg, Viborg, Fredericshamm and Arensburg; the places where the fairs are held, at Niznei-Novgorod, Irbit, &c., connecting the caravan trade of the East with the inland trade of European Russia, which is promoted by canals and rivers. By the Black sea and the sea of Azoph, Russia carries on a very lively trade with various Turkish ports; on the Caspian sea, with Persia; by way of Kiachta, with China; and, on the north-west coast of America, it is at present laying the foundation of its trade in the Pacific. Russia has lately sent an expedition from Kodiak northward, to make topographical surveys in the interior of North America, and to establish a commercial intercourse with the natives of this unexplored country. Her colonies in North America are well provided for. Her officers are gaining nautical knowledge in England, and numbers have been sent to the U. States of America, where models of nautical architecture and vessels celebrated for sailing have been purchased on Russian ac


Sweden and Norway. The articles exported from the 28 Swedish ports are iron, steel, copper, pitch, tar, fir, alum and fish. The chief commercial cities are Stockholm, Gottenburg and Gefle. Carlscrona carries on considerable trade in iron, timber, pitch, tar, tallow, potash, linseed, &c., which articles are sent mainly to the French, Spanish and Italian ports, commonly in exchange for salt. The exports of Gottenburg are fish, iron, steel and boards. The institutions of Sweden for the promotion of commerce are the bank, the East India company, the West India company, the Levant commercial company, the association of industry, &c. From Norway are exported fish, oak and fir timber, deal boards, masts, alum, vitriol, fish and seal oil, pitch, hides, woollen stockings, iron, copper and tar. The chief commercial cities are Christiania, Bergen, Drontheim, Christiansand, Drammer and Stavanger.

Switzerland. Switzerland has a considerable foreign trade. Its exports consist, chiefly, of fine linen, silks, velvets, imitations of East India goods and shawls, fine calicoes, clocks, watches, ribbons, wine, cheese, honey, &c. The most important articles of importation are colonial

and East India goods, from Holland; salt, grain, wool and cloths, from Germany; raw cotton, silk, &c., from Italy; manufactures, of various kinds, from England; wine and brandy from France. The principal commercial cities of Switzerland are Bâle, Berne, Zurich, Geneva and Neufchatel.

Spain. For three centuries, with the decrease of the industry of Spain, its trade has been on the decline. This country might have monopolized the commerce of the world, if it had understood and improved its situation. The natural wealth of the soil is, nevertheless, still the prop of its trade. The most important productions are wool, silk, salt, iron, copper, coal, quicksilver, barilla, rice, saltpetre, sugar, almonds, olives, oranges, lemons, figs, wines, brandy and fruit. In Segovia and Leon, about 1,000,000 arobas (q. v.) of fine wool are annually collected, of which about four fifths are disposed of to the French, Dutch and English. The excellent Spanish wines, brandy, fruit, barilla, &c., are profitable articles for the country. From the port of Barcelona, excellent silks, coarse cloths and cotton goods, with wine, brandy, almonds, nuts, and other productions, are exported; in return for which, the same port receives the silks of Lyons, the hosiery of Nismes, various kinds of stuffs and cotton goods, German linen and dried stock-fish from England, amounting to about $3,000,000. The exports of Valencia consist, principally, of silk, barilla (soda), coarse wool, dried fruits, wine and brandy. The latter is exported, chiefly, by the Ďutch, and carried to Normandy and Bretagne. The English carry to Spain, chiefly, woollen cloth; the French, linen, woollen cloth, cutlery, groceries, &c. From the port of Alicant, the Spaniards export, chiefly, dried fruits, silk, wool, barilla, wine, Castile soap, olives, saffron, a kind of cochineal called grana, and salt; of which last, the English and Swedes annually take upwards of 9,000,000 pounds. In Carthagena and Malaga, also, much business is done. From the latter, wines, dried fruit, almonds, sumach, anchovies, olive-oil, &c., are exported. Cadiz has been one of the principal marts in the world, both in ancient and modern times. In 1792, its exports to the two Indies amounted to the sum of 276,000,000 reals, and its imports to upwards of 700,000,000 reals (8 reals make 1 dollar). Madrid, the royal residence, is likewise an important commercial place and depot. Seville carries on a considerable trade in oil and oranges, which are exported from

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