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Mr. W. Dissenters have, we think, been reluctantly compelled to inhale a rather been prone to the opposite fault portion--which has quickened her infrom that with which he charges them, dolent circulation, and sweetened the and have suffered from attempring to acrid humours of her bigotry-a spirit make their institutions too much like which has been cherished chiefly by the universities; and they have been those who have never been either respectable and prosperous, in propor- within her walls, or those of her sister tion as they have known, and adhered University, and which she herself has • to their own proper character. In done her utmost to extinguish. magnificence it will readily be conceded To the imagination there is no doubl that they are as much inferior to Cam- something imposing in an institution, bridge, ás Cainbridge is to Oxford, but whose identity is prolonged through so they are adapted to the wants and the many reigns and centuries; and lie who means of those to whom they belong, has walked up the High-street of Oxo, and are the fruits of their generous ford, without feeling such emotions, and voluntary zeal. Parva, sed apta may assure hintself that he was not mihi, sed nulli obnoxia."*

born to le an orator or a poet. The The Dissenters are as ready to ac- judgment, however, pronounces, that knowledge the errors which have changes which destroy the chain of caused the decline of their academical antiquarian associations, may be useful institutions, as Mr. W. to lay them to and even necessary. Founders bequeath their charge. Yet some of the vicissi- their prejudiced and partial riews along tudes to which he alludes had no con- with their estates, and take

upon

them nexion with this cause. The removal to legislate for future ages, of whose o the academy from Daventry (for it condition and wants they can have no still exists) was owing to the conscien-. conception : institutions which each tious scruples which made its able and successive age forms for itself will be exemplary (would that the time were adapted to the wants of each. In the more remote when we might say its mortality of the individual, Providence venerable !) Theological Tutor resign has taken a method to break the entail his charge. Before we can allow Mr. of error and prejudice; and frequent W. to exult over the errors, which renovations seem necessary to produce caused the decline of Warrington and a similar effect on public institutions. Hackney, we must request him to an: The boasted perpetuity of endowed gwer us this question: Would either of and chartered bodies is generally only our universities have been at this mon the immortality of a Siruldbrug-a ment in existence, if they must have perpetuity of decrepitude, an eternity fallen, as soon as the opinion of the of dotage. public pronounced, that their professors Academical establishments among the made sinecures of their offices, that Dissenters have risen and fallen during their discipline was imperfect and re- the last fifty years, but the DISSENTING laxed, and their plans of study anti- PRINCIPLE survives their vicissitudes, quated and barbarous? We are very and re-appears with undimivished visure that this question cannot be ho gour. It is the same undying, though nestly answered in the affirmative; and transmigrating spirit, that has successinto what then does their boasted per- ively animated them, which still lives petuity resolve itself, but into a power in those, from which the present geof holding out against public disappro- neration and the next must expect a bation, of slowly admitting the light supply of ministers, to carry on the which has long perraded every place work of recalling Christians to the unbesides, of being the last strong-hold of divided worship of the One True God; exploded prejudices? It is the natural and if, as is reasonable to hope, some tendency of the independent revenues portion of original imperfection have and exclusive privileges possessed by been left behind, in every mortal veuniversities, to make them all this; and hicle which it has occupied, we have if Oxford is superior to Salamanca, it warraut for expecting that they will is less owing to any difference in her attain to a longer term than their preown constitution, than to that free and decessórs. We are, however, far from manly national spirit, of which she has saying to them, estote perpetuæ; the

failure of some past applications of the Ariosto's inscriptionover bis own pious wish might seem to have conkouse.

verted it into a phrase of evil omen, and

I

Review-Wilson's Disenting Churches.

411 we might be praving for what would tion on his tomb, in Bunhill Fields, be rather an injury than a blessing is pleasing from its simplicity: We are rather disposed to take leare of in hopes of a part in the First Resurrecthis subject by congratulating them,

tion. that whatever be their duration they

To the Memory can never survive their usefulness, and Of Mr. JOSEPH JACOB, that as soon as they become negligent

An Apostolic Preacher, of their work, it will be transferred to Who died the 26th of 4 mo. 1722. abler and more faithful hands.

Aged 55.

We learn from the subsequent hisArt. II.-The History and Antiquiticstory of “Turner's Hall," that the of Dissenting Churches, &c.

practice of singing in public worship

was, about this time, introduced (Continued from p. 346.)

amongst the Baptists : but it was an N the history of “Turner's Hall, innovation, and in one particular case sing account of Joseph Jacol, who was objected to the norelty, claiming to brought up a Quaker, but became an themselves the title of the Old Church. Independent minister. He displayed How uniformn is human nature ! his zeal on behalf of civil liberty in the Mr. Wilson is to be considered in a year 1688, by mounting a horse and higher rank than that of a compiler, going to meet the Prince of Orange and therefore his readers may justly in the West of England. He was complain that he has sometimes slahowever no blind admirer of William vishly copied the language of sermons 111. :'he frequently took occasion to and pamphlets from which he drew animadvert in public upon such of the his materials. Who can now endure measures of the government as he such quaintnesses as the following, considered blameable. He did this in which occur pp. 145 and 147, in the a Lecture which he preached at Mr. account of two ordinations : “Mr. Gouge's Meeting-house, near the 'Threa Wallin opened the work of the day, and Cranes, Thames Street: the report of was the mouth of the church upon

the his disloyalty reached the House of occasion:", " they were not in conCommons; and, says Mr. Wilson, nexion with any board. Mr Bocket, “ Mr. Shallet, one of Mr. Gouge's one of the deacons, was deputed by people, being then a member of par- the church to be their mouth." liament, took up the business at a Dewhurst then closed the work of the Church-meeting, complained loudly of day.Mr. Jacob's behaviour, and insisted Intolerance is always the same. upon his being dismissed from his Orthodoxy, creeds, and persecution aro lecture at that place, which was com- natural allies. plied with.”—Mr. Jacob, like many « In the year 1719, the Dissenting other reformers, assumed no little 'Churches in the West of England, were church-authority: he obliged his con- thrown into a flame, in consequence of gregation to stand during the singing, some of their ministers having embraced discarded periwigs, introduced, on the Arianism. This produced a long coutropart of the men, whiskers on the versy, which was carried on with great upper lip, of which he set the exam- bitterness on both sides. At length the ple, and proceeded even' to regulate matter being referred to the London ministhe dress of the women. He forbade ters, they met together in a synod at Salters' the members of his church to attend Hall, to consider of advices to be sent to any other worship than his own, and their brethren in the West, with a view of made it an offence, to be visited with composing the differences. But it so bapexcommunication, for any of them to pened that they could not agree among interinarry with persons not in church- themselves; and, as is generally the case connexion. These singularities were and still further widened the breach. It

with large bodies, they split into parties urged to an extreme: had Mr. Jacob being proposed in this assembly, that, in been a little more temperate, his sect order to support their orthodox bretlxen in might have lasted (the spirit of the the West, the ministers present should sect still lives in many different com- make a declaration of their own sentiments munions that we could name) and his with regard to the Trinity, by subscribing name might have been preserved the first article of the Church of England, amongst the heresiarchs. The inscrip- and the answers to the fifth and sixth

" Mr.

questions in the Assembly's Catechism, yet the late Bishop Porteus, in his life the matter was violently opposed, as an of the Archbishop, his patron, asserted infringement of Christian liberty, and they that “ he never was in communion divided into two parties of subscribers and with the Dissenters !"-The Primate non-subscribers." I. 162, 163.

is convicted of having been a PresbyteThe decision of the synod was

rian minister, in «A Collection of worthy of nonconformists. On divi- Letters and Essays in favour of Public ding, it appeared that there were for Liberty," published in 1774, in 3 vols. subscribing articles of faith 53, against duodecimo; but he appears to have it 57! This ever-memorable majority purified and prepared himself for the stamped an honour upon the cause of church of England by a course of scepDissent, and have redeemed ecclesiasti- ticism and medical study and practice cal assemblies from disgrace. Coldly as (midwifery :)The Archbishop had Mr. Wilson writes of the triumphant a dissenting education, was designed party in this part of his work, he uses, for the pulpit among that people ; but in another place, II. 68, the lan had not so inuch freedom from doubtguage of warm approbation which be- ings, as to allow him to engage in the comes the friend of liberty.

service of a public instructor in the Amongst the voters at Salter's Hall Christian religion; and therefore turned were Thomas Reynolds, pastor of the his thoughts to the study of physic. Weigh-house, and Jaines Read, his Bishop Talbot's arguments reconciled assista:t: Reynolds was in favour of him to the faith of the civil churchsubscription, Read in opposition to it. establishment, in April, 1721, and he The vote given by Read caused his became more and more confirmed in orthodoxy to be suspected, and he was that faith as he made his advances in persecuted with ariful questions, and the church, till he reached the See not giving answers satisfactory to Rey of Canterbury." Collection, &c. III. nolds and his orthodox party in the 34. church, which was the majority, was

One of the most interesting biograat length dismissed. Two of the ques- phical sketches in the History, is that tions urged by the inquisitors on this of Samuel Wilton, D. D. pastor of the occasion deserve to be recorded as a church, formerly Presbyterian, now model for such as may in future be Independent, at the Weigh-house. desirous of screwing and racking Dr. Wilton distinguished hunself as conscience: they were,

an ardent friend and able advocate of

religious liberty. He took an active “ 1. Whether a person that pays reli- part in the application of the Dissentgious worship to Christ, but at the same time disowos him to be truly and properly from subscription, and published in

ing ministers to parliament for relief God, (that is, in the strictest and strong 1773 “An Apology for the Renewal est sense of the word) be chargeable with of an Application, and in 1774, “A one has forfeited his claim to Christian Review of some of the Articles of the communion ?" 1. 170.

Church of England, to which a Sub

scription is required of Protestant DisIn this connexion, our historian senting Ministers.” The latter public uses gravely, and without a note of cation is still read and admired and will admiration, the phrase “ Arian he never be out of date whilst the articles resy!" Protestant Dissenters ought continue to be imposed as a test of surely to have learnt by this time the orthodoxy, in the parliamentary folly of language which implies on the church. With other eminent faculpart of the speaker or writer theologi- ties of mind, Dr. Wilton possessed, a cal infallibility.

very strong and retentive memory; it The occasional mention of “ Mr. was partly from his memory, as well Jollie's church at Sheffield,” leads Mr. as that of Dr. Furneaux, that Lord Wilson (p. 177. Note) to name Arch-Mansfield's celebrated speech, estab bishop Secker, who, in early life was "lishing the right of Dissenters to exa meinber of that church, and who emption from office in corporations, afterwards studied for the Dissenting was published. A good portrait of ministry under the learned Mr. Jones, him ornaments this part of the Hisof Tewkesbury. Secker delivered a tory, probationary Sermon in the meeting- Dr. Wilton's public character is the house au Bolsover, Derbyshire. And more observable on account of the Review.-Wilson's Dissenting Churches.

413 different part in religious politics There is a story related of him, but for the which has been taken by his successor, truth of which we cannot be responsible, John Clayton, whose Sermon on the that, in one part of bis life, he was emBirmingham Riots has been preserved ployed no less than four months in devefrom oblivion by the eloquent Answer loping the mysteries of Joseph's coat, from to it by Robert Hall, M. A. the cele Genesis xxxvii. 3. sud he made him a brated Baptist minister, then of Cam- cout of many colours. In allusion to this bridge, now of Leicester. Mr. Clay- circumstance, Mr. Bragge was thus chaton was educateii under the patronage Dissenting ministers, at that period :

racterized, in some lines descriptive of the of the late Countess of Huntingdon, and was somne time assistant to the Rev.

“ Eternal Bragge, in nerer-ending Sir Harry Trelawney, who was pastor

strains, of an Independent congregation at Wist Unfolds the wonders Joseph's coat con

tains ; Loo, Cornwall.The reverend Baronet after various changes seitled down And from each patch a solemn mystry,

Of er’ry bue describes a different cause, into a parish priest in the national

draws."

I. 247. church. An account of his religious progress is given by Mr. Dyer, in his

The decline of Presbyterian congreLife of Robert Robinson, p. 179, &c. gations is commonly imputed to the It has been said that Sir Harry has Unitarian doctrine, though, in fact, not iakçı his rest in the Church of no peculiar doctrine has been advanced England.

in the greater part of them: but to An opposite course to Sir Harry what cause is the decline of the old Trelawney's is -deseribed by the his- Independent " Evangelical" churches torian in the Memoir (I. 205) of Caro- to be attributed? That decline in. lus Maria de Veil, D. D. who was London, at least, is unquestionable. born at Metz, in Lorram, of Jewish

Ex uno disce omnes. parents, and educated in that religion, " This church (Bury Street, St. Mary but embraced Christianity and became Axe) is renvarkable for the number of first a Ronian Catholic, and held dis- ejected ministers who have presided over tinguished stations in that church, it. We have an account of no less than next a Protestant, and obtained orders eight of those worthies, in this connexion. in the Church of England, and lastly There has been a considerable variation a Dissenter of the Baptist denomina- in the state of the Society for the last tion. He latterly practised physic for century anil upwards. Prior to Dr. a maintenance, and being poor, received Chauncey, it appears to have been in a an annual stipend from his Baptist ilourishing condition ; but in his time it brethren. Ha published several learı- declined. There was a great revival under ed works, exiribiting his opinions in Dr. Watts, who

had a large and respect

able audience. During the latter part of the several stages of his belief. A Dr. Savage's time the interest was in a brother of his, Lewis De Compeigne very low state. Though a learned man De Veil, also became a Christian, and and a judicious as well as Evangelical was interpreter of the oriental lan- preacher, his labours were not attended guages to the king of France, but with that success which frequently accomturning Protestant, came over to Eng- panies meaner abilities. At the settlement lanct.

of the present pastor, it was expected that Mr. Wilson is not likely to rise to his popular talents would have a considerfame, as a translator. He gives, for in- able influence in reviving the congregation ; stance, the English of a Latin epitaph; but they have failed of that desired effect." on the monument of Mr. Nathaniel

I. 258. Mather, in Bunhill Fields, and the

There are particular circumstances phrase “ Laude dignissimus” is thus which more than any general causes done into English, meritorious of the affect the condition of Dissenting conhighest praise !” I. 233, 234.

gregations: one thing is plain, that the The character of Robert Bragge, as ready way to success is to consult the a preacher, may be a useful admoni- taste of the public, which is ever varynition to some of Mr. Wilson's read- ing. There is now a love of novelty, ers :

variety, life and bustle in religion. “ It was his custom, as we are informed, Methodism did not create this taste; it to make the most of his subject, by preach- was a happy concurrence with it: re. ing several discourses upon the same text. gular preaching and church order will VOL. XI.

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not now satisfy the bulk of Christian evident, but it has been so often turnhearers and communicants. Hence ed into a joke that we doubt the proIndependent churches, that have not priety of repeating it; and there are been cast anew in the methodistic so few temptations of a worldly kind mould, lrave in very few instances kept to nonconformity, that it is for the up their reputation and numbers." most part needless to say that a Dis

Mr. Wilson takes a great liberty in senter is not swayed in his religious coining a word, p. 262, viz. Lauden- choice by a love of ease or lucre or sian, by which he ineans liclonging to honour. (Archbishop) Land. The ailjective The historian does not conceal Dr. warranted by usage is Laudean; al. Watts's heresy on the subject of the though a circumlocution would be Trinity, but he is careful to represent better than even this term.

it as less alarming than has sometimes In the memoir of Dr. John Oumi, been imagined. Of the “ solemn adthe liistorian writes con amore. Owen dress" he says nothing. * The Doce was a great man, and we are disposed tor is commended by this biographer to inake but few abatements in Mr. for keeping reason out of the province Wilson's panegyric. It is indeed ho- of religion : but had he suffered his nourable to this patriarch of Independs own excellent understanding to exerency, that

he was one of the first advo- cise itself on points of faith, could he cates in England of liberty of con- have fallen into the strange notion science, on the right principle. Bislop that non-elect infants, dying in infancy, Jeremy Taylor went before him in siuk into annihilation? (1. 308.) this noble course: Richard Baxter, with all his boldness, dared not follow Art. III-Substance of a Specch delithese eminent leaders of the public vered in the Court of Common Council, mind. There was a remarkable con- on a Motion to address his Royal Highsistency in Dr. Owen's nonconformity: ness the Prince Regent to accede to he scrupled to give the popish title the late Treaty concluded between the of suint to the apostles, and he shewed Emperors of Russia and of Austria a praiseworthy indifference to the usual

and the King of Prussia: By Mr.1 clerical titles.

Favell. To which are added other

Papers on the Subject of Peace. 8vo. “ Upon a certain high-churchman refusing to style him Reverend, he wrote

pp. 54. Conder. 1816.

R. FAVELL is well known in thus : For the title of Reverend, I do give bin notice that I have very little

London as the zealous and convalued it, ever since I have considered the

sistent friend of civil and religious saying of Luther, Nunquam periclitatur

liberty and of peace. In the evening Religio nisi inter Reverindissimos. (Re- of life, and apparently meditating a ligion never was endangered except anong retreat from public business, he pubthe most Reverends.)

So that he may,

lishes this speech as a testimony in beas to me, forbear it for the future, and half of the principles which, with 'yacall me, as the Quakers do, and it shall rious success, he has avowed and desuffice. And, for that of Doctor, it was fended for forty years.

He delivers a conferred on me by the University, in my

Aattering opinion of his old associates absence, and against my consent, as they “ the Reformers of England-a class have expressed it under their public seal : of high spirited and independent men, nor doth any thing but gratitude and re- who have maintained the cause of spect unto them, make me once owu it; and freed from that obligation, I should

freedom, and have dared be honest in never use it more : nor did I use it, until

the worst of times." We cordially some were offended with me and blamed wish the public attention may be me for my neglect. Defence of Review drawn to Mr. Favell's sensible and of Schism, prefired to Mr. Cution's De- manly plea for Peace and Reform. fence against Cawdry, pp. 97, 98."

I. 265. Note..

* The question of Dr. Watts's last reli-. Dr. Watts's father is said (I. 292) gious opinions is largely discussed in our to have been “a Dissenter from prin- eighth volume. ciple.The meaning of the phrase is

MR

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