Imatges de pągina

derstand his original, whether this be a manuscript or a work of art, to avoid the numerous blunders which he will otherwise make in most cases in which copying is required. In ancient times, when the art of writing was less improved than it is at present, and, at the same time, the art of printing was not in existence in Europe, good copyists were much esteemed. With the Romans, they were slaves, and commanded very high prices. In the niddle ages, when learning had fled from the world into the convents, the monks were busily engaged in copying the manuscripts of the ancient classics, and others of a later date; but very often they did not understand what they wrote, or did their work carelessly, because copying was often imposed upon them as a penance; so that great labor has been subsequently spent in correcting the errors of the manuscripts of the middle ages. At the time when copying was the only means of multiplying books, their price was, of course, very great; and this was the case even with common books, as the breviary. In the fine arts, much more talent is necessary to produce an exact copy of a masterpiece than is at first supposed. Without a reproduction of the original, in the mind of the copyist, his imitation cannot be perfect. He must have the power to conceive, and transfer to his own canvass, the living spirit of the piece before him. What an immense difference there is between the copy of an artist of genius and the literal exactness of a Chinese! This consideration leads us a step further, to the misconception of the character of painting and sculpture, which would confine the artist to a strict imitation of particular objects in nature. If this were the great aim of the arts, any view of a market would be better than a Teniers, and any landscape superior to a painting of Claude Lorraine. It is true that a cat so painted as to be hardly distinguishable from the living animal, or a drop of water which we try to wipe away, call forth our praise of the artist's skill; but they are only studies. It is the life which breathes throughout nature, and (in the higher branches of the fine arts) the ideals at which nature herself aims, which the artist must be able to conceive and to exhibit. It is with the above arts as with the drama. A drama would be an extremely dull, poor, and perhaps vulgar production, if all we could say of it were, that it is an exact copy of certain particular occurrences. As copies of the great works of art may convey, to a considerable degree, the same

pleasure as the originals, it were to be wished that great sculptors would copy their own works, as Thorwaldsen did his beautiful Triumph of Alexander. The copy is on a reduced scale, and in terra cotta.

COPYING MACHINES. The most convenient mode of multiplying copies of a writing is by lithography, and this mode is much used by merchants and others in preparing circulars; also in the different departments of government. In Mr. Hawkins's polygraph, two or more pens are so connected as to execute, at once, two or more copies. Mr. Watt's copying machine is a press, in which moistened bibulous paper is forced into close contact with freshly written manuscript. The writing is, of course, reversed, but, the paper being thin, the characters can be read on the posite side. Doctor Franklin used to cover writing, while moist, with fine powdered emery, and pass the sheet through a press in contact with a plate of pewter or cop per, which thus became sufficiently marked to yield impressions, as in the common mode of copperplate printing.


COPYRIGHT denotes the property which an author has in his literary works, or which any other person has acquired by purchase, and which consists of an exclusive right of publication. In some countries, in Europe, this right is perpetual; in others, as in England, France and the U. States, it is for a limited period. In England, the first legislative proceeding on the subject was the licensing act of 1662, which prohibited the publication of any book unless licensed by the lord chamberlain, and entered in the register of the stationers' company, in which was entered the title of every new book, the name of the proprietor, &c. This and some subsequent acts being repealed in 1691, the owner of a copyright was left to the protection of the common law, by which he could only recover to the extent of the damage proved, in case of its infringement. New applications were therefore made to parliament, and, in 1709, a statute was passed (8 Anne, 19), by which the owner of a copyright was required to deliver a copy of his book to each of nine public libraries, and severe penalties were provided for guarding the property of copyright against intruders for 14 years, and no longer. The delivery of nine copies is often a heavy tax, and was, for some time, evaded by publishers; but, in 1811, the university of Cambridge brought an action to enforce the delivery, and obtained a verdict; and, in 1814, an act was

passed confirming this claim on the part of the libraries. Notwithstanding the statute of Anne, it was, for some time, the prevailing opinion, in England, that authors had a permanent, exclusive copyright, at common law; and, in fact, it was decided, in 1769, by the court of king's bench, in the celebrated case of Millar vs. Taylor (4 Burr. 2303), that an author had a common law right in perpetuity, independent of the statute, to the exclusive printing and publishing of his original compositions. The court were not unanimous in this case. Lord Mansfield and two other judges were in favor of the permanency of copyright, in which they were confirmed by judge Blackstone: the fourth judge, Yates, maintained that the words of the statute were a limitation. A subsequent decision of the house of lords (1774) settled the question against the king's bench, by establishing that the common law right of action, if any existed, could not be exercised beyond the time limited by the statute of Anne; and that the exclusive right should last only 14 years, with a contingent renewal for an equal term, if the author happened to be alive at the end of the first period. The law continued on this footing till 1814, when the right was extended to 28 years, by rendering the last 14 years certain, instead of leaving them contingent; and, if the author were living at the end of that period, to the residue of his life. In the U. States, the jurisdiction of this subject is vested in the federal government, by the constitution (art. 1, sec. 8), which declares that congress shall have power "to promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing, for limited times, to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries." By the acts of congress of May 31, 1790 (ch. 15), and April 29, 1802 (ch. 36), the authors of maps, charts, books, engravings, etchings, &c., being citizens of the U. States, or resident therein, are entitled to the exclusive right of publishing for 14 years, and, if the author be living at the end of that period, for an additional term of 14 years. The English law does not distinguish between resident and non-resident aliens, like the American law. In France, the law of copyright is founded on the law of 1793, which gave to authors a right in their works for life, and to their heirs for 10 years after their deaths. The decree of 1810 gave the right to the author for life, and to his wife, if she should survive him, for her life, and to their children for 20 years. A work, already published in a

foreign country, may be published in France without the consent of the author. There is a disposition in France to enlarge the term of copyright; and propositions have been made, within a few years, to extend it to the legal representatives of the author for 50 years after his death. In Germany, the laws respecting copyright vary in the different countries; but, in general, there is no fixed time. The copyright is almost always given for the lifetime of the author. But the diet of the Germanic confederation has not, as yet, succeeded in agreeing upon a general law, and an author's works may be printed in any of the states in which he has not taken out a copyright. Austria is famous for piratical, incorrect, cheap editions; the government seeming to calculate according to the old maxim of political econ omy-if the book is pirated there, the cost of it does not go out of the country. There is one check, however, against pirated editions, viz., the Leipsic book-fair (q. v.), where the German booksellers meet to settle their mutual accounts, and where no member of the community would like to appear in the character of a piratical publisher. A copyright may exist in a translation, or in part of a work (as in notes or additional matter), with an exclusive right to the whole; but a bona fide abridgment of a book is not considered, in England and the U. States, a violation of the original copyright. So a person may use fair quotation, if, by its application, he makes it a part of his own work; but cannot take the whole, or a large part of a work, under the pretence of quotation. If an encyclopædia or review copies so much of a book as to serve as a substitute for it, it becomes liable to an action for a violation of property. An encyclopædia must not be allowed, by its transcripts, to sweep up all modern works. In Germany, abridgments are not protected as they are by the laws of England and the U. States, which tend greatly to the prejudice of the authors of original works, who are liable to have the most valuable fruits of their toils given to the public in the shape best fitted to command a rapid sale, for the benefit of others, while the original works are comparatively excluded from the market. Washington Irving, it is well known, was compelled to prepare an abridgment himself of his Life of Columbus, for his own protection. The time for which a copyright is allowed, in the U. States, is very short. It would seem but just to allow a man the exclusive property in his own book during his life, and even

to extend the same, for a given period, to his heirs, in certain cases; for the most valuable books are, in many cases, those which have the slowest sale. For a novel, which is forgotten within six months from its appearance, the term of copyright may be sufficiently long; but for a standard work in history or science, it is often much too short. While on the subject of the protection afforded to literary productions originating in the U. States, we may be permitted to remark on the expediency of removing all obstacles in the way of the introduction of the literature of other countries. With the exception of American books printed abroad, there seems to be no good reason for subjecting imported books to the payment of duties. In a government, the foundation of which is the intelligence of the people, it does not seem advisable to throw this obstacle in the way of intellectual improvement, for the sake of the very small accession of revenue thereby gained. The sums which have been paid for copyrights have varied with the nature of the work, the reputation of the author, and the liberality of the publisher. An original work, the author of which is unknown, and the success of which must depend on the taste and talents of the writer, and the taste and wants of the age, will stand little chance; while a book, suited to the market, for which the publisher can calculate the demand, may command a liberal price. A compilation or a dictionary may succeed, where the poems of a Milton, the philosophy of a Hume, or the histories of a Robertson could find no encouragement. Châteaubriand received for his complete works, from the bookseller L'Avocat, half a million of francs. Moore has a life annuity of £500 for his Irish Melodies. Sir Walter Scott received, in 1815, for his 3 last poems, 3000 guineas apiece. Campbell received for his Pleasures of Hope, after it had been published 15 years, 1000 guineas; for his Gertrude, after having been published 6 years, 1500 guineas. Byron received for the fourth canto of Childe Harold, £2100. Cowper's poems, in 1815, though the copyright had only 2 years to run, were sold for 8000 guineas. Cotta, a German bookseller, is said to have given Göthe, for his complete works, 30,000 crowns. In England, large sums are paid for books which promise a rapid sale: the same is true, in a less degree, of France and the U. States. Germany and Italy remunerate authors very poorly, only a few instances, such as Göthe, excepted. In Spain, the book-trade has been so 45


crushed by a merciless censorship, that an author must publish his books, in that country, on his own account. For a long time after the art of printing was invented, no remuneration was paid to authors.

COQUETRY; an undue manifestation, on the part of a woman, of a desire to attract admirers. The wish of woman to please gives rise to much that is amiable in the female character, and delightful in the intercourse of good society, and is blamable only when it is carried so far as to overstep delicacy. Its degrees are very different, and, in a French woman particularly, it is often united with much that is graceful and amiable. That which is nurtured by the system of the English boarding-schools has fewer redeeming qualities. It received its name in France. We learn from madame Scudery's Histoire de Coquetterie, which is to be found in the 2d volume of her Nouvelles Conversations, that this word was first introduced into the French language in the time of Catharine de Medici.

COQUIMBO, OF SERENA; a jurisdiction in Chile. The fertility and beauty of the country have induced many families to reside here. The country produces corn enough to supply annually 4 or 5 vessels, of 400 tons each, for Lima. There are many mines of gold and silver.

COQUIMBO; capital of a jurisdiction in Chile, the second town founded by Valdivia, about a quarter of a league from the sea, on a river of the same name; 10 miles S. W. of Rioja; lon. 71° 19 W.; lat. 29° 55′ S. The population consists of Spaniards and people of color, with some Indians. The harbor is accounted one of the best on the west coast of South America, and is much frequented. The streets are built in a line from north to south, and east to west; well watered, and shaded with fig-trees, palms, oranges, olives, &c., always green. The number of houses is between 3 and 400.

CORAL (coralium, Lat.; Kopáλor, Gr.), in gem sculpture; a marine zoophyte that becomes, after removal from the water, as hard as a stone, of a fine red color, and will take a good polish. Coral is much used by gem sculptors for small ornaments, but is not so susceptible of receiving the finer execution of a gem as the hard and precious stones. Caylus has published an antique head of Medusa, sculptured in coral, of which the eyes are composed of a white substance resembling shells, incrusted or let in. He supposes it to have been an amulet, because the ancients, who were partial to a mystical anal

ogy between the substance and the subject represented (see Allegory), supposed, as Ovid relates in his Metamorphoses, that Perseus, after having cut off the head of Medusa, concealed it under some plants of coral, which instantly became petrified, and tinged with the color of the blood which flowed from it, and from a green turned to a red color. Pliny and other ancient authors attribute many superstitious qualities to the coral; therefore it is no wonder that it was often taken for an amulet. Pliny also relates that the Gauls, and the people inhabiting the maritime parts of Italy, as well as other nations on the sea-coast, used it to form ornaments for their armor and household furniture.

CORAN. (See Koran.)

CORAY, Adamantios; a learned physician and scholar, born at Scio, or Chios, in 1748. After having studied the ancient and modern languages, and translated, while a boy, a German catechism into Greek, he went, in 1782, to Montpellier, to finish his education, where he studied medicine and natural history, and received the degree of doctor. In 1788, he settled in Paris. Since he has been naturalized in France, he has greatly contributed, by his learned works, to give a favorable opinion of the progress of improvement among the modern Greeks. He has always retained a great attachment to his native country; and we owe to him several excellent accounts of the intellectual progress of his countrymen. During the youth of Coray, a fondness for learning was revived among the modern Greeks by some ecclesiastics, who translated valuable books of instruction, principally from the German, and made them their text-books in their schools upon mount Athos. The wealth of several Greek commercial houses made them feel the want of skilful bookkeepers and clerks, and they were desirous of taking them from among their own countrymen. Moreover, the Russian armies had destroyed the illusion of the invincible power of the sublime Porte, and the Greeks, being protected in their property by the influence of the Russian consuls, became active and industrious, and the knowledge which they gained by commerce with other nations helped to eradicate the superstitions and prejudices which had grown up in the long darkness of Turkish despotism. Coray has referred to these favorable circumstances which attended the time of his education, in his Mémoire sur l'État actuel de la Civilisation dans la Grèce lu à la Société des Observateurs de l'Homme, in 1803; and has offer

ed, in his preface to a translation of Hippocrates upon Climate, Water and Locality, an apology for his nation. This, together with his preface to Ælian's Historical Memorabilia, in the Hellenic Library, in which he gives a history of the modern Greek language, belongs to the pieces called forth by the exaggerated praise and censure which his views have received. The improvement which Coray has given to the modern Greek language has by no means been universally acknowledged. He has chosen a style borrowed from every century, and deviating much from the style of the people, and the language of the patriarchs and Byzantines of latter times. H. Codrika, professor of Greek grammar and modern literature at a lyceum in Paris, has attacked him violently in several publications, asserting that his style is artificial, and has but little effect upon his nation. The imitators of his style are called Coraists. The critical editions which Coray has published of the ancient authors cannot be entirely trusted, for he often makes very bold alterations. They are, however, very useful for his own countrymen. They have been published in Paris since 1806, under the general title of Hellenic Library, embracing chiefly Ælian's various histories, Polyænus, Esop, Isocrates, Plutarch's Lives, Strabo, Aristotle's Politics, &c. This venerable old man lives in Paris, devoted to literary labors, and has never answered the writings directed against him, satisfied with the respect that is continually paid him by many of his countrymen. A marble statue of him, executed by Canova, stands in the lecture-room at Chios. His old age has prevented him from joining in the struggle of his nation against their op pressors. The warmth and sincerity of his good wishes in their cause may be seen from his excellent introduction to Aristotle, which has been translated into German.

CORBAN (from the Hebrew karab, to approach). In the Scriptures, this word signifies an offering to the Lord. Jesus is represented as using this word in Mark vii. 11.

CORBIÈRE, James Joseph William Peter, one of the most active and obnoxious members of the Villele ministry, born in the department Ille-et-Vilaine, was, in 1815 member of the chambre introuvable. (q. v.) He was the reporter of the law of amnesty (so called) of Jan. 12, 1816, and of the law of divorce. He was much opposed to the ministry of Decaze, and has at times assumed some liberality of

tone, with a view of resisting the ministers; but, substantially, he has ever been a violent royalist. In 1820, Corbière was appointed chef de l'instruction publique, and, Dec. 14, 1820, minister of the interior, was afterwards made a count, and loaded with orders, &c. As soon as he was installed, he put in execution the great system of purification (système d'épuration), mercilessly discharging every officer, from the maire to the lowest clerk, who did not entirely coincide with him in political sentiment, or ventured to show character and independence. Teachers were dismissed from the colleges on the ground of not being sufficiently religious. M. Corbière declared that all schools ought to receive a more religious character: the écoles Chretiennes were augmented, and those of mutual instruction were attacked by the ministerial papers. Corbière, who always had defended the liberty of the press before he became a minister, now subjected it to the most revolting censorship. He, who had once supported the law of Feb. 5, pour rétablir les électeurs dans tous leurs droits, et de leur éviter les supercheries ministérielles, now actively aided his colleagues, Villèle and Peyronnet, in rendering the elections subservient to ministerial influence. To complete his glory, after the dismission of so many eminent men, Corbière countersigned the ordinance dissolving the national guards. He fell with the Villèle ministry in 1829. CORDAY D'ARMANS, Marie Anne Charlotte, the murderer of Marat, was born at Saint Saturnin, near Seez, in Normandy, in the year 1768. With the charms of her sex she united a rare courage. Her lover, an officer in the garrison at Caen, was accused by Marat as a conspirator against the republic, and assassinated by villains hired for that purpose. This excited Charlotte Corday to revenge. History had inspired her with a deep-rooted hatred against all oppressors, and she determined to free her country from Marat, whom she considered as the head of those monsters called buveurs de sang (the drinkers of blood). Another motive confirmed her purpose. Many deputies, such as Barbaroux, Louvet, Gaudet, and others, who were persecuted by Marat, and afterwards proscribed, May 31, 1793, to whose opinions she had attached herself, invoked the assistance of Frenchmen in behalf of liberty, now expiring beneath the horrors of the times. Charlotte then left home, entered Paris July 12, 1793, and went twice to Marat's house, but was not admitted. On the same evening, she wrote to him as

follows: "Citizen, I have just now come from Caen. Your love for your country no doubt makes you desirous of being informed of the unhappy transactions in that part of the republic. Grant me an interview for a moment. I have important discoveries to make to you." The following day came, and, with a dagger in her bosom, she proceeded to the house of Marat, who, just on the point of coming out of his bath, immediately gave orders that she should be admitted. The assemblies at Calvados were the first subjects of conversation, and Marat heard with eagerness the names of those who were present at them. "All these," he exclaimed, "shall be guillotined." At these words, Charlotte plunged her dagger into his bosom, and he immediately expired, with the words, "To me, my friend ?" Meanwhile the maid remained calm and tranquil as the priestess before the altar, in the midst of the tumult and confusion. She was afterwards conducted as a prisoner to the Abbaye. A young man, who begged to die in her place, was also condemned to death. Her first care was to implore the forgiveness of her father for disposing of her life without his knowledge. She then wrote to Barbaroux as follows: "Tomorrow, at 5 o'clock, my trial begins, and on the same day I hope to meet with Brutus and the other patriots in elysium." She appeared before the revolutionary tribunal with a dignified air, and her replies were firm and noble. She spoke of her deed as a duty which she owed her country. Her defender (Chaveau-Lagarde), full of astonishment at such courage, cried out, "You hear the accused herself! She confesses her crime; she admits that she has coolly reflected upon it; she conceals no circumstance of it; and she wishes for no defence. This unshaken calmness, this total abandonment of herself, these appearances of the utmost internal tranquillity, are not natural! Such appearances are to be explained only by political fanaticism, which armed her hand with the dagger. To you then, gentlemen of the jury, it belongs to judge of what weight this moral view may be in the scale of justice!" His words could make no impression on the minds of the judges. After her condemnation, she thanked her defender with these words: "I would willingly give you some token of the esteem with which you have inspired me. These gentlemen, however, have just informed me that my property is forfeited; but I have incurred some small debts during my imprisonment, and I hereby transfer

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