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ekrane a struments, raised by God, to begin the purging and building

gift of prayer, with which our Lord Jesus Christ pleaseth to dei furnishi all his servants whom he calls to that office: so, on alire the other side, it hath been (and ever would be, if continued) de a matter of endless strife and contention in the Church, and liselt ki a snare both to many godly and faithful ministers, who have paint been persecutedand silenced upon that occasion, and to others

of hopeful parts, many of which have been, and more still would be, diverted from all thoughts of the ministry to other studies; especially in these latter times, wherein God vouchsafeth to his people more and better means for the discovery

of error and superstition, and for attaining of knowledge in endle the mysteries of godliness, and gifts in preaching and prayer.

Upon these, and many the like weighty considerations in reference to the whole book in general, and because of divers particulars contained in it; not from any love to novelty, or intention to disparage our first reformers, (of whom we are persuaded, that, were they now alive, they would join with us in this work, and wliom we acknowledge as excellent in of his house, and desire they may be had of us and posterity in everlasting remembrance, with thankfulness and honour, but that we may in some measure answer the gracious providence of God, which at this time calleth upon us for further reformation, and may satisfy our own consciences, and answer the expectation of other reformed churches, and the desires of many of the godly among ourselves, and withal give some publick testimony of our endeavours for uniformity in divine worship, which we have promised in our Solemn League and Covenant; we have, after earnest and frequent calling upon the name of God, and after much consultation, not with flesh and blood, but with his holy word, resolved to lay aside the former Liturgy, with the many rites and ceremonies formerly used in the worship of God; and have agreed upon this following Directory for all the parts of publick worship, at ordinary and extraordinary times.

Wherein our care hath been to hold forth such things as are of divine institution in every ordinance; and other things we have endeavoured to set fortli according to the rules of Christian prudence, agreeable to the general rules of the word of God; our meaning therein being only, that the


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may be a consent of all the churches in those things that doing reverence

Of the Assembling of the Congregation, and their Behariour in the publick 528 The Directory for the Publick Worship of God. general heads, the sense and scope of the prayers, and te minister is then other parts of publick worship, being known to all, there one from all prive contain the substance of the service and worship of God; from all gazing and the ministers may be hereby directed, in their admini- sich may disturb strations, to keep like soundness in doctrine and prayer, and les or others in may, if need be, have some help and furniture, and yet so as they become not hereby slothful and negligent in stirring up the gifts of Christ in them; but that each one, by medita-segregation

, to tion, by taking heed to himself, and the flock of God mitted to him, and by wise observing the ways of divine sembly in that providence, may be careful to furnish his heart and tongue with further or other materials of prayer and exhortation, as shall be needful upon all occasions.

the Publick Worship of God. WHE THEN the congregation is to meet for publick worship

, the people (having before prepared their hearts thereunto) ought all to come and join therein; not absenting themselves from the publick ordinances through negligence, or upon pretence of private meetings.

Let all enter the assembly, not irreverently, but in a grave and seemly manner, taking their seats or places without adoration, or bowing themselves towards one place or other.

The congregation being assembled, the minister, after solemn calling

on them to the worshipping of the great name of God, is to begin with prayer,

“ In all reverence and humility acknowledging the ino comprehensible greatness and majesty of the Lord, (in 66 whose presence they do then in a special manner appear,) “ and their own vileness and unworthiness to approach so - near him, with their utter inability of themselves to so “ great a work; and humbly beseeching him for pardon, “ assistance, and acceptance, in the whole service then to

performed; and for a blessing on that particular portion 66 of his word then to be read. And all in the name and “ mediation of the Lord Jesus Christ."

The publick worship being begun, the people are wholly to attend upon it, forbearing to read any thing, except what



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ane, brze congregation, to betake themselves to their private devock of low tions, but reverently to compose themselves to join with the mars des assembly in that ordinance of God which is then in hand.

the minister is then reading or citing; and abstaining much more from all private whisperings, conferences, salutations, or doing reverence to any person present, or coming in; as also from all gazing, sleeping, and other indecent behaviour, which may disturb the minister or people, or hinder themselves or others in the service of God.

If any, through necessity, be hindered from being present at the beginning, they ought not, when they come into the

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Of Publick Reading of the Holy Scriptures. READING of the word in the congregation, being part of

the publick worship of God, (wherein we acknowledge our dependance upon him, and subjection to him,) and one

mean sanctified by him for the edifying of his people, is to publikon be performed by the pastors and teachers.

Nowbeit, such as intend the ministry, may occasionally preto both read the word, and exercise their gift in preaching in volumen in the congregation, if allowed by the presbytery thereunto.

All the canonical books of the Old and New Testament (but none of those which are commonly called Apocrypha) shall be publickly read in the vulgar tongue, out of the best allowed translation, distinctly, that all may hear and under-.

How large a portion shall be read at once, is left to the wisdom of the minister; but it is convenient, that ordinarily one chapter. of each Testament be read at every meeting; and sometimes more, where the chapters be short, or the coherence of matter requireth it.

It is requisite that all the canonical books be read over in order, that the people may be better acquainted with the whole body of the scriptures; and ordinarily, where the reading in either Testament endeth on one Lord's day, it is to begin the next.

We commend also the more frequent reading of such scriptures as he that readeth shall think best for edification of his hearers, as the book of Psalms, and such like. Z


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to be had unto the tiine, that neither preaching, nor other one and offers of son that can read, is to be exhorted to read the scriptures belind, mpenit AFTER reading of the word, (and singing of the psalm.) pagregation is pe his own and his hearers hearts to be rightly affected with wght of the

the minister who is to preach, is to endeavour to get end and gree the Lord, and hunger and thirst after the grace of God in her special ob Jesus Christ, by proceeding to a more full confession of sin, To acknowle with shame and holy confusion of face, and to call upon tour guilt, sa

“ To acknowledge our great sinfulness, First, by reason God's fierced

of original sin, which (beside the guilt that makes us liable and easiest ju 66 depraved and poisoned all the faculties and powers of soul and gospel fror

to everlasting damnation) is the seed of all other sins, hath wers, and t) 66 forth into innumerable transgressions, and greatest rebel- "where is weer 66 restrained, or our hearts renewed by grace) would break "darkness, in th and body, doth defile our best actions, and were it not easporal judg)

And next, by reason of actual mace, enc 66 bidden, and leaving undone what is enjoined ; and that through the

our consciences, and motions of his own Holy Spirit to the the free 530 The Directory for the Publick Worship of God. When the minister who readeth shall judge it necessary entrary

, so that to expound any part of what is read, let it not be done until my despising the the whole chapter or psalm be ended; and regard is always ned long-sufiering ordinances, be straitened, or rendered tedious. Which rules we ought, tour is to be observed in all other publick performances.

Beside publick reading of the holy scriptures, every per- "To bewail our privately, (and all others that cannot read, if not disabled ins

; our not end by age, or otherwise, are likewise to be exhorted to learn its of life

, moram to read,) and to have a Bible.

Of Publick Prayer before the Sermon. their sins, that they may all mourn in sense thereof before the Lord to this effect : 66 lions against the Lord that ever were committed by the 66 vilest of the sons of men. “ sins, our own sins, the sins of magistrates, of ministers, 66 and of the whole nation, unto which we are many ways

accessory : : which sins of ours receive many 66 vations, we having broken all the commandments of the as holy, just, and good law of God, doing that which is for“ not only out of ignorance and infirmity, but also more

presumptuously, against the light of our minds, checks of 66



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“ contrary, so that we have no cloak for our sins; yea, not at “only despising the riches of God's goodness, forbearance,

" and long-suffering, but standing out against many invita“ tions and offers of grace in the gospel; not endeavouring,

as we ought, to receive Christ into our hearts by faith, or to walk worthy of him in our lives.

“ To bewail our blindness of mind, hardness of heart, “ unbelief, impenitency, security, lukewarmness, barren

ness ; our not endeavouring after mortification and new“ness of life, nor after the exercise of godliness in the pow

er thereof; and that the best of us have not so stedfastly. “ walked with God, kept our garments so unspotted, nor “ been so zealous of his glory, and the good of others, as we ought: and to mourn over such other sins as the congregation is particularly guilty of, notwithstanding the " manifold and great mercies of our God, the love of Christ, “the light of the gospel, and reformation of religion, our

own purposes, promises, vows, solemn covenant, and “other special obligations to the contrary.

“ To acknowledge and confess, that, as we are convinced

of our guilt, so, out of a deep sense thereof, we judge " ourselves unworthy of the smallest benefits, most worthy " of God's fiercest wrath, and of all the curses of the law, " and heaviest judgments inflicted upon the most rebellious “sinners; and that he might most justly take his kingdom “ and gospel from us, plague us with all sorts of spiritual and

temporal judgments in this life, and after cast us into utter “ darkness, in the lake that burneth with fire and brimstone, " where is weeping and gnashing of teeth for evermore.

"Notwithstanding all which, to draw near to the throne " of grace, encouraging ourselves with hope of a gracious answer of our prayers, in the riches and all-sufficiency of

that only one oblation, the satisfaction and intercession of "the Lord Jesus Christ, at the right hand of his Father and "our Father; and in confidence of the exceeding great and "precious promises of mercy and grace in the new covenant, " through the same Mediator thereof, to deprecate the heavy “ wrath and curse of God, which we are not able to avoid,

or bear; and humbly and earnestly to supplicate for merey, “ in the free and full remission of all our sins, and that only


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