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any state or ceremony, but simply as a clergyman on a private person. His Lordship observed the time fixed for the interview, and after conversation of the most pleasing and satisfactory nature, he administered the Holy Sacrament to the royal sufferer, who afterwards expressed himself to Sir Herbert Taylor as "much pleased with the good Bishop's mild and encouraging discourse." After this interview, which took place on the 29th of August, 1826, his Lordship had free admission to his Royal Highness, and availed himself of the opportunities thus afforded him of preparing, by conversation suitable to the case of a dying Christian, the mind of the kind-hearted Prince for that great change which, to the intense grief of the nation, occurred on the 5th of January, 1827. About a week before this solemn event, the Bishop administered the Holy Sacrament to the dying Prince for the last time, and was very much affected, especially at the conclusion, when pronouncing the solemn blessing. On the death of Dr. Manners Sutton, Archbishop of Canterbury, in the month of July, 1828, Dr. Howley was nominated and chosen as his successor. In that exalted station, which we trust he will long be spared to fill, he has maintained the dignity of the Church, through a period of great difficulty and danger, and to the general satisfaction of her best friends. In the year 1829, when the second reading of the Popish Emancipation Bill was moved, his Grace opposed the measure, in a powerfully argumentative, unanswerable, and admirable speech; observing, that ever since he had possessed a seat in the House of Lords, he had uniformly voted against any further concession to the Papists, and never did he do so with more pain than on the present occasion: but he had an important duty to perform to the Church of which he was a member and a servant-to the purity of the faith of which that Church was the depository-to the constitution, which he apprehended would be injured by granting political power to its enemies; at the same time he entreated the legislature to provide for the religious instruction and pastoral superintendence of the people of Ireland, and to deliver them from the spiritual thraldom by which they were so awfully misled. His Grace concluded by moving that the Bill be read a second time that day six months, the usual form of defeating an obnoxious Bill. But all was useless, for the infatuated government had resolutely determined to carry the measure.
In the parliamentary session of 1831, the Archbishop took a decided part in opposition to the Reform Bill, declaring at the same time that "to a reform synonymous with the extermination of abuses, and the restoration of the excellences of the constitution, he was a sincere friend; and amongst the Right Reverend Prelates who sat near him, he did not believe there was onc who did not concur with him in that sentiment. He had heard with great satisfaction, in the course of the debate, the opinions delivered by the noble Lords in opposition to the Bill, because they had declared that their opposition was directed, not against the principle of the Bill, or the general principle of reform, and they had expressed their willingness to accede to a measure of gradual, temperate, and safe reform. In that sentiment he entirely concurred."
In the same session his Grace introduced Bills for the Composition of Tithes, for the Limitation of the power of holding Benefices in Plurality, and for the Augmentation of Small Livings, but they did not become law.
In May, 1834, when Lord Brougham, then the Lord High Chancellor, presented a petition from some sectaries at Glasgow, praying for the separation of Church and State, his Grace strongly reprehended the principles set forth in that revolutionary document; and in the following year opposed, with great force of argument and expression, the equally revolutionary project of Lord Radnor, for the abolition of subscription to the Articles of Religion at the Universities. On several other important occasions his Grace has spoken
in the House of Lords as the first Peer of the first Estate of the Realm, with his usual soundness of argument, felicity of illustration, and chasteness and elegance of expression.
The Archbishop's publications have been confined to Diocesan Charges and Sermons on particular occasions; all of which are eminently distinguished for accurate judgment, and profound scriptural knowledge. It is unnecessary for us to do more than to add, that in every station of life, His Grace's integrity, benevolence, and unassuming piety, have secured him the veneration and the esteem of the great and the good, not only of his own country, but of every nation wherever the apostolical orders, the primitive government, and the amplitude and purity of the faith, or even the name of the English branch of the Catholic Church of Christ has become known.
ON THE NECESSITY OF ZEAL AND ACTIVITY IN THE
If there ever was a time when it was more than ordinarily incumbent upon every true Christian and patriot, every lover of God and our country, to exert all his strength and influence, and to manifest all that zeal, activity, and courage which every pious man is bound to manifest in behalf of the Church and cause of God, and thus of the temporal and eternal welfare of his fellow-creatures and fellow-countrymen; that time is undeniably the present. Practical heathenism, if not positively increasing, is sadly prevalent amongst us; infidelity stalks abroad, encouraged and patronized by some who are bound by every obligation, sacred and civil, to discountenance and to destroy it; licentiousness and vice are creeping through the land, depositing their slime in every inch of their progress; beastly socialism, the spawn of the swinish Owen, characteristically patronized by a Melbourne, is poisoning the morals of the people, and destroying their domestic happiness and comfort; Popery, the masterpiece of Satan, with its hundreds of Jesuitical deceivers, each with his fifty faces, is undermining the religion and the morals of the community. Dissent, with its hundred heads, is busily at work with its multifarious schemes for the subversion of the Church and constitution of the country; crime increasingly abounds on every hand; misery and wretchedness are rife, and in too many places rampant, amongst us. Discontent and rebellion, the natural consequences, the legitimate results of that state of things which has been allowed to grow up in the land, are breaking forth, and portending evil, which is not likely soon to end: and what has been done of late years, let us ask, to stem the torrent of iniquity thus deluging the community, and to counteract the evil effects of principles and practices which were evidently intended, and certainly well calculated, to produce a plentiful crop of discord, disunion, strife, confusion, and every evil work? We must answer-comparatively nothing.
We are however delighted to find, that at length the best part of the community, the sound-principled, the earnest-minded, pious, and zealous portion of the Christian Church, have, at last, set themselves fairly and actively to work, as if by agreement, to remedy this deplorable state of things. It is evident to all, that this remedy is to be found only in the sound religious instruction of all classes, both young and old. And consequently, as Mr. Gresley, in his admirable work " On the Necessity of Zeal and Moderation in the Present Circumstances of the Church;" remarks, some are labouring to set forth the true nature of the visible Church of Christ; others to repair the bulwarks, and extend the efficiency of our
National Establishment; others again, have directed their endeavours to the promotion of education on Church principles; in short, some in one way, some in another, are diligently exerting themselves in the cause of truth. Divine Providence seems to have pointed out this division of labour, to the respective promoters of these good works. Yet, though their labour is divided, their objects are in perfect harmony; and none can be omitted without impairing the beneficial operation of the rest. To insist on Church principles without affording the ordinances of the Church to the people, is attempting to make bricks without straw; to extend the ordinances of the Church, without at the same time inculcating those principles which alone can keep the Church together, is but to multiply sectarianism."
The knowledge that numbers of the laity as well as of the clergy are thus praiseworthily engaged is truly encouraging to the Christian mind; and the wisdom of providing church room and inculcating sound principles at one and the same time is self-evident. If preference were advisable, we should unhesitatingly give it in favour of disseminating most widely the great Catholic principles of the Church of England, and thereby inducing men to give liberally of their property and labour towards the building of churches. This was the Apostolic method of procedure; they first preached truth and made converts, who, filled with the spirit and love of God, soon afterwards erected temples to the honour and praise of Him who had called them out of darkness into his marvellous light, But whether it be by building churches, or by promoting the knowledge of sound Church principles, or by imparting religious education, or, what is better, by all the branches of the work going on harmoniously together, we care not, so that the work of God amongst men does but proceed with activity, zeal, and rapidity." And what we now so earnestly desire, is to see all the members of our holy Church co-operating together to promote the cause of truth in any and every legitimate way in their power. Clergy and laity, high and low, rich and poor, male and female, all and each one, can do something in that station of life to which it hath pleased God to call them. Noblemen and landlords, men in public and official stations, parents, masters, and guardians, and all others who profess either authority or influence, ought boldly, constantly, and consistently to employ it. in the furtherance of the cause of the Church and the truth of God, and to support that authority or influence by the charming inducement of a good example, Every one who can give land or money, ought to give it; and those whom God has not seen fit to bless with what are called the good things of this life, can give their prayers and the benefit of a good example of a holy life and conversation; and can do what may be in their power, by words and deeds, to command their children, and influence their relatives, friends, and neighbours to embrace and hold fast the holy principles of the Church, and to adorn her heavenly doctrines by godly, righteous, and sober lives. Instead of suffering our time, our thoughts, and conversation to be so much employed about the sordid and grovelling affairs of this world and its vanities, let us, as sincere Christians, shew our faith by our works, and make it manifest to the world that we do really believe what we profess to believe. What else is it than to manifest a faithless spirit, if we do not actively and resolutely strive to retain the commanding position which we occupy, and to advance the cause of truth by every means of influence which Divine Providence has given us. They who now by unseasonable inactivity suffer the Church to lose its vantage ground, are not the men who in former ages would have won the martyr's crown, or have shared the martyr's blessedness. Let us, then, throw off our lethargy and cold-hearted indifference, and shew to all around us a hearty and affectionate concern for the service and honour of God, and an
carnest desire and constant study to promote it by all lawful and prudent methods. And let us, at the same time, recollect that true Christian zeal is not a matter of sudden impulse, or a start in devotion, nor a feverish hot fit of religion, but a serious, steady religious principle, rooted and grounded in the mind, and ever expressing and exerting itself by various acts suited to the various occasions that may present themselves. It is a principle as coolly and deliberately taken up, as it is warmly and resolutely carried out in practice. Religious zeal must not only be accompanied with sincerity and integrity, but it must ever be warm, affectionate, and vigorous. The root and ground which supplies it with fuel, and keeps it constantly alive, is the ardent love of God, which naturally excites in those who happily profess it, a vehement desire and a great delight to please Him by devoting themselves more especially to His heavenly service. This holy zeal, also, while it will inspire us with indignation against those principles and practices which as Christians we cannot but abhor, as opposed to the will and to the glory of God, will never presume to be the executioner of His vengeance. It is warm, but not waspish; vehement, but not violent; resolute, but not revengeful. The truth and excellency of the Gospel of Christ, the honour of God, and the salvation of men, are dear and sacred pledges, which the zeal of the pious Christian is always most ardently and affectionately concerned for, and will always contend for against all opposition. But then it is always guided by judgment and discretion, and accompanied by moderation. By moderation, however, we mean not a lukewarm indifference in matters of religion; not a looseness and latitude of opinion; not that spurious liberality now so common; not a sneaking complaisance to error and vice; nor a wavering compliance, first with one party and then with another: but it is an evenness of temper resulting from a well-poised judgment and well-regulated affections, and constantly adhering to the cause of truth, but never foregoing that candour and equity, that mildness and humanity, which are due even to those who have erred and are deceived. It is necessary, therefore, that zeal and moderation should accompany each other, and act in conjunction: let zeal be very ardent and vehement in the love of God; very active and industrious in his service; very courageous, bold, and resolute in the defence of his truth, and in vindication of his laws; let it be filled with a just detestation of those vicious opinions and practices which are injurious to his Church, and reflect dishonour upon his holy name: but, then, let moderation keep zeal from all violent transports of passion, from all sinister interpretations, unjust charges, uncharitable censures, fierceness of contention, and bitterness of language. Such is the virtuous mean in which zeal and moderation should both meet in one; such is the happy temperament of both, which enables those who are furnished with it to defend and support the Church of God sedately and resolutely, at once, and in a manner best becoming our holy religion and the wisdom and meekness of its Divine Author.
[To be concluded in our next.]
ON THE TRUE NATURE AND EXTENT OF CHRISTIAN
THE Christian charity, or want of Christian charity, attributed to opinions, or modes of action, by the professing Christian world, is a subject which, if it could be. properly understood, would tend to dissipate many a cloud which now obscures the understanding, and misdirects the judgment of, or produces an inaction calamitous to, the cause of religion among multitudes. It may
be laid down as an axiom, that charity or liberality in matters of religion is co-extensive with truth. If we overstep this boundary, we rob God to serve man;-if we reduce the limits, we deprive man of a full participation in the free and liberal distribution of God's mercies ;-and if we constitute ourselves judges of the length to which our charitable feelings should be extended, and of the boundary by which they are to he limited, we usurp the prerogative of God, who alone can circumscribe, as he alone has circumscribed, our doctrines and duties. Our Christian charity cannot be tempered to meet circumstances, and doctrines must not be degraded to suit the taste of times or individuals, or to harmonize with the suggestions of our reason. The precepts and commandments of the Gospel must not be undervalued, as if the lapse of years made it less necessary to comply with their demands, or as if the moral constitution of man changed with times and seasons. The Church must not be surveyed as an infinitely-divisible body; each portion, however small, possessed of a vivifying principle, the origin of new bodies, which assume a thousand different forms, all qualified to act in concert, and maintain the honour of the Head. In nature such an anomaly could not be found. Let the world call the Christian liberal or uncharitable, the resolution that he has formed to maintain inviolate his belief in God's word, because it is his word— to continue his adherence to the doctrines of the Bible as interpreted by the Church, because we are taught that revelation contains mysteries, and that "the Church is the pillar and ground of the truth,”—and the blessing that he feels attaches to him as one of the adopted into God's family, and therefore a partaker of that sacramental grace which belongs to Christ's Church as a Church, and is communicated to those alone who live within its hallowed pale-all contribute in no small degree to console and cheer him in his contact with so many adverse and contradictory opinions.
The great Head of the Church, for wise and inscrutable reasons, permits his Church to be tossed in the tempestuous billows of this probationary world, only as the wisest, safest, and surest road to the haven of peace, while its strength is proved by the various and continued shocks of adverse winds and waves. The favoured inmates of this ark of God's providing must look, without cessation, for difficulties and dangers from within and from without. God's people are assailed by the world of infidelity, by professed friends, and by the authors and propagators of heresies and schisms; and in maintaining their ground against such active and unwearied enemies, they will necessarily be taxed with a zeal not defensible, and of a want of that "charity which hopeth all things."
The accusations of infidelity will be regarded by God's elect as the natural consequence of a depraved reason, under no control but that of the spirit of the old Adam, claiming to be as gods, to know good and evil; and will be met by the Christian philanthropist with "a zeal according to knowledge,”— with a love which makes him regard every man as his brother, but at the same time with a bold resolution to represent the danger, the hopelessness of the man who lives without God and without Christ in the world.
The backslidings or inconsistencies of professed friends, come to the heart with a peculiar sting; they disarrange the symmetry of the fabric of the Church, and they give the enemy cause to rejoice. They are to be met by the undaunted firmness of men who regard every jot and tittle of the truth as invaluable, and every rite and ceremony of the Church as promoting the cause of true religion and piety; and as brethren in Christ we will beseech,ay, earnestly implore them to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace; but and if they depart, let them depart-they excommunicate themselves.