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resumed his former post of paymaster of after repeated fruitless attacks, all prothe forces. His reputation as a financier ceedings against him were dropped. His induced all eyes to be directed towards health soon after began to decline, owing him on the occurrence of the unprece. to repeated attacks of the stone, wbich at dented disasters' arising from the bursting length carried him off, March 18, 1745, of the South sea bubble; and lord Sun- in the sixty-ninth year of his age.-See derland being obliged to retire, on ac- Coxe's Memoirs of Sir Robert Walpote (3 count of his being implicated in the affairs vols., 4to., 1798).—His brother Horatio of that company, Walpole resumed his (lord Walpole) was born in 1678. He post of first lord of the treasury, and pre- filled several offices under government, mier. He was indisputably a most ser- and was an able diplomatist. lle was viceable minister to the house of Bruns- raised to the peerage in 1756, and died wick, and mainly contributed to the dis- the following year. He wrote several po comfiture of the plots and intrigues of the litical tracte, and an answer to Boling. Jacobite party in favor of the Preterder. broke's Letters on History. (See Coxe's His general policy was principally char- Memoirs of Horatio Lord Walpole.) acterized by the desire of preserving WALPOLE, Horace, earl of Ortord, third peace abroad, and avoiding subjects of and youngest son of sir Robert Walpole, contention at home. He was an able was born in 1718. He received his early financier, and certainly exerted himself, education at Eton, whence he removed with considerable success, to improve the to King's college, Cambridge. He quitted trade and revenues of the country, al- the university without a degree, and, by though the introduction of the excise the interest of his father, wus nominated scheme forms a very dubious claim to to three valuable sinecures, which be held applause. A pursuit of useful rather than to the time of his death. In 1739, he at of splendid objects, joined to a sincere out on a tour to the continent, accompazeal for the Protestant succession, formed nied by the poet Gray, with wbom he had the leading principles of his government; a difference, and they parted, Walpole and the means which he employed were subsequently taking all the blame upos prudence, vigilance, and a degree of cor- himself. He entered parliament in 1941, ruption not greater than what was prac- as member for Callington, and spoke tised by many of his predecessors, but spiritedly in opposition to a motica more general and systematic. Walpole against his father, but was, in general, a is the reputed author of the saying, that very silent and inactive member. It was “ All men have their price;" but liis bi- soon apparent that he was not destine! ographer, archdeacon Coxe, asserts that for the paths of public life. With much the words were “all those men," speaking vivacity and love of occupation, his chief of a particular body of his opponents. He delight was in the indulgence of literary was an artfu) rather than an eloquent curiosity, and a taste for antiquity and the speaker, and discerned, as if by intuition, fine arts. In 1747, he represented the the prevalent humor of the house, and borough of Castle Rising, and, in 1734 pressed or receded accordingly. He was and 1761, that of King's Lyon, and alparticularly clear in financial debates, and ways adhered to the whig principles in a most excellent and diligent man of busi- which he was educated; and his parlianess. In private life, he was distinguish- mentary conduct was uniformly corrert ed by frankness of manners and a species and independent. In 1748, he purchased of jovial good-nature ; but his mirth was his small but celebrated villa at Twirkencoarse, and his moral conduct assumed ham (9. v.), called Strawberry hill, which much of the easy license of rank and it formed no small part of the business of fashion. Letters he neither loved nor his future life to render a miniature spepatronised, except the productions of sub- cimen of Gothic architecture, and a splitaltern writers in his praise or defence, did collection of pieces of art, and nlies whom he rewarded liberally. On the of antiquity, many of them curious and whole, without being an exalted charac- valuable, and others of rather a tritling ter, he was an able minister. His minis- description. He first made himself known try was finally shaken by the unpopulari- as a writer by some papers in the Worki, ty of his exertions to maintain peace with and a few poems in Dodsley's Collections Spain, in 17:39, from which time the op- His first separate publication appeard in position to himn gained ground, until, in 1752, entitled des Walpoliana, being a 1742, he resigned, and was created earl of description of bis father's seat at HountrOrford. A parliamentary inquiry into his ton. In 1757, he set up a printing-press conduct was subsequently instituted; but, at Strawberry bill, at wbich he printed

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Gray's Odes, and various other works. elevation which gave him more trouble From his own press also appeared, in than satisfaction, and which made no al1758, the first edition of his Catalogue of teration in his mode of living or literary Royal and Noble Authors. This was fol- pursuits. His death, which was hastened lowed by a collection of Fugitive Pieces, by a hereditary gout, that had reduced and, in 1761, by his Anecdotes of Paint- him to a cripple, took place in March, ing in England (2 vols., 4to.), compiled 1797, in bis seventy-ninth year. He befrom the papers of the artist George Ver- queathed to Robert Berry, esquire, and tue. Two more volumes were afterwards his two daughters, all his printed and added; and the whole forms a valuable manuscript works, of which a collective collection. In 1761, his friendship for edition was published in 1798 (5 vols., 4to.). general Conway drew from him a pam- The most valuable addition to what had phlet on the dismissal of that officer from formerly appeared consisted in his letters the army, on account of the vote which to a great variety of correspondents, writ. he gave on general warrants. In 1765, ten with great ease and vivacity, but ocappeared his romantic fiction of the Cas- casionally exhibiting affectation and effort. tle of Otranto, the prolific parent of the He is certainly, however, one of the most Radcliffe romance, and a vast variety of lively and witty of letter-writers, but too similar fictions. Being at Paris in 1765, frequently deemed his letters a grace and he composed a French letter to Rousseau, a favor accorded to his literary correin the name of the king of Prussia, by spondents, which superseded the necessiway of exposing the vanity and self-con- ty of any thing more substantial. His sequence of that singular character, who Memoirs of the last ten Years of the acted on the occasion with his usual ex- Reign of George II (2 vols., 4to., 1822) travagance. Walpole was, however, are of the highest value for the domestic searcely excusable for this attack upon history of that period. In 1825, appeared the morbid sensibility of a man who had his Letters to the Earl of Hereford, formgiven him no provocation; but his cor- ing the ninth volume of a quarto edition respondence with Hume supplies 'a very of his works. See, also, the Walpoliana extraordinary specimen of his aristocrati- (2 vols., 18mo), and the Reminiscences of cal contempt for authors by profession. Horace Walpole (1826). His plan of life In 1767, he declined being again chosen was formed upon a selfish principle of to sit in parliament; soon after which ap- self-enjoyment. As an author, he ranks peared his Historic Doubts on the Life respectably among general writers. and Reign of King Richard III. It is an WALPURGA, WALBURGA, or WALPURacute and ingenious performance, but 619; a saint, born in England, sister of failed in convincing the public; and the St. Willibald, first bishop of Eichstädt, in brief, but conclusive investigation of it by Germany, and niece of St. Boniface, the Gibbon, in his miscellaneous works, has apostle of the Germans. She went, like probably disposed of the question for ever. her uncle and brother, to Germany as a Mr. Walpole forgot his dignity so much missionary, and became, about the middle in regard to this performance, as to ex- of the eighth century, abbess of a convent punge his name from the list of members at Heidenbeim, in Franconia. She must of the antiquarian society, because two have been a learned woman, as she was papers were read before them controvert- considered the author of a Latin descriping part of his evidence. In 1768, he tion of the Travels of St. Willibald. After printed his Mysterious Mother-a very her death (776 or 778), she received the powerfully written tragedy, on a disagree- honors of a saint, was believed to work able subject, and one which altogether many miracles, and chapels in honor of precludes it from the stage. About this her were built in many places. From time occurred the transaction with the the circumstance that in German almaunhappy Chatterton (q. v.), which sube nacs the name Walpurgis has been jerted him to so much censure; but his accidentally placed, sometimes alone, fault, on this occasion, appears to have sometimes together with the names of been mainly his general apathy towards the apostles Philip and James, against literary men. He visited Paris in 1771 the first of May, the night previous to the and 1775, and became much distinguished first day of May, so famous, in German in the circle of the celebrated madame du legends, for the assembling of the witches, Deffand, who particularly admired him. has been called Walpurgis night. The The principal incident of his advanced first of May is an important day for the years was his accession to the earldom of German cultivator: many contracts are Orford, by the death of his nephew-an made at this time; the labors of the field


assume new activity, &c. It is not stave the planks of small boats. Its prinstrange that, on so important a day, the cipal food, it is said, consists of shell-tish. devil and the witches were supposed to The tusks grow to the length of ten or be more active than usual, and to assem- twenty inches, or sometimes even three ble in a particular place to organize the feet, weighing from five to ten pounds. work of evil. This superstition, however, They are worked like ivory, but tur may have had its origin in the ancient yellow in a shorter time. The skin is German mythology. Hence straw was about an inch in thickness, and is used for burned in many places, on the Walpur- a variety of purposes. gis-night, with a view of dispersing the Walsali; a market town and parish malignant beings—a custom still pre- of England, in the county of Stat ord, served in some places. The chief con- 116 miles from London ; population, vocation of the witches was considered to 15,066. By the reform act of 182, take place on the Brocken. Many cus- Walsall was constituted a borough, re. toms connected with the first of May, in turning one member to parliament. Germany, originated in this superstition. WALSINGHAM, Thomas of, an English

Walrus (trichecus rosmarus); a ma- chronicler of the fifteenth century, was a rine quadruped, resembling the seals in Benedictine monk of the abbey of St. the structure of the feet, but differing in Alban's, where he held the ofhce of prethe teeth and digestive system. It is large centor; and he also styles himself royal and unwieldy, sometimes attaining the historiographer. His works are, Historia weight of 2000 pounds, and inhabits un- Brevis, containing the annals of England, frequented coasts in the arctic seas. The from the end of Henry IIl's reign, forinhead is oval, short, small, and flat in front: ing a continuatior to the history of Maithe flat portion of the face is set with thew Paris; and Hypodigma Neustrire, very strong bristles, which are pellucid, giving an account of the occurrences in about a span in length, and twisted; the Normandy, from the time of Rollo to the orifices of the ears are very small, but the sixth year of Henry V. These pieces sense of smelling appears to be exceed- were published by archbishop Parker ingly acute; the incisors are four in the (London, 1574, folio). upper jaw, but the two middle ones are WALSINGHAM, sir Francis, an English shed as the animal advances in age; the statesman, in the reign of queen Elizaupper canines are large, elephant-like beth, descended of an ancient family, tusks, directed downwards; the feet are was a native of Chiselhurst in Kent. He very short, and the toes are connected by was educated at King's college, Cara membrane, and armed with strong nails; bridge, and, at an early age, travelled on the tail is short. Formerly, vast herds the continent, and acquired a knowledge of these animals frequented the shores of the languages, manners and policy of of the islands between Northern Asia and foreign nations. His first employment America, Davis's straits and Hudson's was that of ambassador to the court of bay, in lat. 62°, and even as far south as France, whence he returned in 1573, the Magdalen islands, in the gulf of St. and, being appointed one of the principal Lawrence, between lat. 47o and 48°; but, secretaries of state, and a member of the at present, the walrus is no where nume- privy council, received the honor of rous, except on the icy shores of Spitz- knighthood. In the important situation bergen and the remotest northern coasts which he filled, he rendered great serof America. Voyages were once made vices to his sovereign, and contributed, to procure its tusks and oil

, and it is said by his policy, to the stability of ber guirthat 1200 or 1500 individuals have been ernment. The means which he adopted sometimes killed at once out of a herd. however, for the attainment of his purThe walrus is slow and clumsy while on poses, were not of the most honorable land, but quick and active in the water. description. Lloyd, in his State Worthies It often comes on shore, and the female says, “Sir F. Walsingham outdid the brings forth her young there in the spring. Jesuits in their own bow, and over-reachIt is fearless and inoffensive, unless dis- ed them in their equivocation and mental turbed, and strongly attached to its mate reservation ; never settling a lie, but and young, but becomes fierce and for- warily drawing out and discovering the midable when attacked, especially if the truth. Few letters escaped his hands young are present, furiously endeavoring whose contents he could read and pot to sink the boats by rising and hooking touch the seals. He had the wonderful its tusks over their sides; and frequently art of weaving plots, in which busy peothe violence of its blows is sufficient to ple were so entangled that they could


never escape, but were sometimes spared two tons of goods are daily bleached, upon submission; at others, hanged for calendered and packed. There are two example. He would cherish a plot for schools supported by the proprietors of years together, admitting the conspirators the factories, at which instruction is to his own and the queen's presence fa- regularly provided without charge. miliarly, but dogging them out watch- WALTHER OF THE VOGELWEIDE, one of fully." Such was the policy of this states- the most eminent old German lyric poets man, who is stated to have maintained of the class of Minnesingers (q. v.), was fifty-three agents and eighteen spies in descended from a noble, but not wealthy foreign courts. In 1581, he went on a family, whose castle, Vogelweide, is supsecond embassy to France, to treat of a posed to bave been situated in Upper marriage between Elizabeth and the duke Thurgau. Walther resided at the court of Anjou ; and, in 1583, he was sent to of Frederic, the eldest son of Leopold VI, the court of James VI of Scotland, duke of Austria and Stiria. Frederic whence he is said to have brought back took the cross iu 1195, departed for Palesa higher opinion of the abilities of the tine in 1197, and died the ensuing year, future sovereign of Britain than the on the crusade. Walther seems to have event justified. He acted a very impor. left the court of Vienna immediately tant, but by no means honorable part, in after the loss of his royal patron. After the detection of Babington's plot against the murder of Philip of Suabia, in 1208, the life of the queen, in 1586, and in he set out on his wanderings. At the the subsequent proceedings against Mary, court of Philip Augustus, king of France, queen of Scots. His death took place in he seems to have met with a kind recepApril, 1590, in the ninetieth year of his tion; but he remained longest at_the nge; and his remains were interred pri- splendid court of the landgrave of Thuvately, by night, in St. Paul's church, ringia, who had always around him a apprehensions being entertained that his circle of poets, and instituted that celecorpse might be arrested on account of brated poetic contest, the war on the his debts. An account of his negotiations Wartburg (1207), in which Walther took and his despatches from France appear- part. Walther shows himself, in his poed under the title of the Complete Am- litical poems, a warm defender of the bassador (1655, folio); and a work called imperial power and honor, against the Arcana Aulica has been ascribed to him, encroachments of the clergy and their but its authenticity is questionable. head in Rome. Some time after the

Waltham; a post-town in Middlesex arrival of Frederic II in Germany, we county, Massachusetts, on the north side find Walther again at the court of Vienna, of Charles river, which separates it from where he was kindly treated by Leopold Newton; ten miles west of Boston, thir- VII. After Leopold's death, in 1230, ty-four east by north from Worcester, Walther seems to have left the court of 426 miles from Washington: population, Vienna, of the decline of which he comin 1820, 1677 ; in 1830, 1859. It is a plains; and of the further events of his pleasant town, and contains two Congre- life, we only know that he was engaged gational meeting-houses, and three cot- in a crusade, probably the one undertakion manufactories, which are among the en by the emperor Frederic II, to Palesmost extensive and best conducted estab- tine, in 1227. The year in which Walther lishments of the kind in this country. died is as uncertain as that of his birth ; They belong to a company of gentlemen he must have lived, however, till after residing principally in Boston. The 1230. The latter years of his life were capital stock amounts to $600,000, three devoted to a pious contemplation of the fourths of which are vested in mill privi- world, of death, and eternity. His poems, leges on Charles river, land, houses, three all of them lyric, may be found in the brick manufactories, and machinery, manuscript collections of the Minnesingcomprising 8064 spindles and 231 looms. ers. (q. v.) Lachmann has published These works employ about 400 persons, them according to the original text (Berprincipally females, and from 60 to 80 lin, 1827). Akland has given an account men in making machinery. The quan- of the life and character of this poet tity of cotton annually used amounts to under the title Walther von der Vogelweide, about 700,000 pounds, and the cloth made etc. (Stuttgart, 1822). to 2,000,000 yards. These works were Walton, Isaak, an ingenious and commenced in 1814; the whole com- amusing writer, was born at Stafford, in pleted in 1821. There are also bleach- August, 1593. He was probably of low ing works, carried by steam, at which parentage, for he settled in London as a


semster or milliner and linen-draper, knowledge, and devoted to its acquisition und kept a shop in Fleet street. About all the moments he could spare from bis 1032, he married the sister of bishop early occupation as an apprentice to a Ken, and, in the beginning of the civil carpenter. At the expiration of bis term wars, he removed from the metropolis. of service, he removed to Georgia, where His death took place at Winchester, in he applied himself to the study of the 1683. He was the editor of several pub- law, and, in 1774, was admitted to the bar. lications, and gained considerable celeb- Among the patriots who assembled ai rity by a treatise entitled the Complete the “liberty pole,” at Tondee's tavern, SaAngler, or the Contemplative Man's Rec- vannah, to devise measures of resistance reation, which has passed through nume- to the encroachments of England, he aprous editions; and his Biographical Me- peared, and took a prominent part. in moirs of bishop Sanderson, Hooker, sir January, 1775, he was chosen a member II. Wotton, George Herbert, and doctor of a committee appointed to prepare a peDonne, which have attained an equal tition to the king; and, in February, 1776, share of popularity. Though possessed he was elected one of the Georgia dele of much general information, Walton gation to the national congress, and conmade no pretensions to learning; and the tinued a member of that body, with little charm of his writings depends on the air intermission, until 1781. In December, of verisimilitude and unaffected benevo- 1778, he was appointed colonel in the iniJence which they exhibit. Some short litia, and received a wound in the thigh, pieces of poetry are interspersed in his during the defence of Savannah. He works, which evince much taste and was made prisoner, but exchanged in feeling.

September, 1779. He was twice chosen Walton, Brian ; a learned divine and governor of the state, once a senator of critic, born about 1600, and educated at the U. States, and, at four different periCambridge, where he took the degree of ods, a judge of the superior courts, which master of arts, in 1623. Removing to last office he held fifteen years, until his London, he obtained a rectory in 1626, death, Feb. 2, 1804. His powers were and, ten years after, was instituted to the strong, and his temperameni ardent. rectory of St. Giles's in the fields. In WALTZ (German Walzer, literally roller); 1639, he commenced doctor of divinity: a national German dance, common, how. In the civil wars, he favored the royal ever, among other nations of the conticause, and was consequendy obliged to nent, as Spain, &c., and of late introtake shelter at Oxford. There he formed duced into England and the U. States. A the scheme of a Polyglot Bible, to which he waltz ought to be danced with much owes his literary reputation. This work grace and precision ; and the first pote was completed and published in six vol- of cach bar (the music being always umes, folio, in 1657, under the following written in or 3 time) should be distinci,

3 title: Biblia Sacra Polyglotta complectentia

8 (textus originales) Hebraicum, cum Penta- and longer than the two others. It teucho Samaritano, Chaldaicum, Græcum is a mistake to suppose that the waltz (versionum que antiquarum), Samaritana, music is always gay. The waltz of Græcæ LXX Interpp. Chaldaicæ, Syria- the north of Germany was grave and ca, Arabica, Æthiopicæ, Persice, Vulg. slow, whilst that of the south, particularLat. quicquid comparari poterat : cum Ter- ly of Vienna, is gay, and may degenetuum et Versionum Orientalium Transla- rate into a bacchanalian swiftness. The tionibus Latinis. Doctor Walton had quick, gay waltz is the most common at several assistants in his laborious under- present. Several waltz tunes are now taking, of whom the principal was doctor often united, to prevent monotony. One Edmund Castell. On the restoration of of the most important rules for waltzing Charles II, to whom he presented his well, yet often neglected by foreigners, is, Bible, with a new dedication (the original that both the dancers should stand paralone to Oliver Cromwell having been lel, and directly opposite each other. cancelled), he was made one of the royal WAMPUM (from wumpi or wompi, sig. chaplains; and, in 1660, he was raised to nifying, in the Massachusetts Indian lanthe bishopric of Chester. His death took guage, white, the color of the shells most place in London, 1661.

frequent in wampum belts); shells, or Walton, George, a signer of the Dec- strings of shells, used, by the American Idlaration of Independence, was born in dians, as money. These, when united, form Frederic county, Virginia, about the year a broad belt, which is worn as an ornament 1740. He possessed an eager desire of or girdle. It is sometimes called team

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