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ternich, Rasumoffsky, and Hardenberg, invitation to Lübeck. In 1774, however, for Austria, Russia and Prussia, estab- he was invited to Kiel as pro-chancellor lishes a house of representatives, and a and first professor of theology; and, ten senate with a president, a court of appeal, years after, was appointed chancellor and &c. The legislative body consists of rep- curator of the university. He died in resentatives chosen by the corporations, 1788, with the reputation of an accomtogether with three deputies of the senate, plished scholar, a poet, a fertile author, three prelates of the chapter, three doctors one of the first pulpit orators, and a man of the university, and six judges. The of a noble character and an active zeal executive power is in the hands of a senate, for the public good. Besides many hisconsisting of twelve senators, eight of torical and theological works, he wrote whom are for life, and four for a limited a poetical translation of the psalms, and period. The president and eight of the three volumes of poems, of which the members are chosen by the national as- odes and hymns are the best. sembly; the other four by the chapter His son, Charles Frederic Cramer (born and the university. Most of the inhabit- in 1752, died in 1807), was likewise an ants are Catholics, but all sects are pro- author, and lived long in Paris, whither tected. No one is qualified for being a he was drawn by the interest which he senator or representative without having took in the French revolution.
lis jourstudied in one of the universities of Po- nal, which he kept with great care, conland.
tains much information, as his house was CRADLE, in shipbuilding; a frame placed the point of union of many distinguished under the bottom of a ship, in order to men, and he was concerned in important conduct her, smoothly and steadily, into transactions. the water, when she is launched ; at which CRAMP (kramp, Dutch), in architecture time it supports her weight whilst she and sculpture; pieces of iron, bronze, or slides down the descent or sloping passage other metal, bent at each end, by which called the ways, which, to facilitate her stones in buildings, and limbs, &c., of passage, are daubed with soap and tal- statues, are held together. The ancient low.
Romans made great use of cramps in their Craft, in sea language, signifies all buildings, and the cupidity of modem manner of nets, lines, hooks, &c., used in barbarians, like pope Barberini, has defishing. Hence little vessels, as ketches, stroyed many a fine work for the sake of hoys, smacks, &c., of the kind commonly the bronze used in its construction. The used in the fishing trade, are called smail Pantheon, with its fine portico, by Agrippa, craft.
and the Coliseum, have suffered most CRAMER, John Andrew, born Jan., 1723, from these wanton aggressions, and the at Jöhstadt, near Annaberg, in the Saxon baldachin of St. Peter's, and some eighty Erzgebirge, where his father was a poor pieces of brass ordnance, are nearly all clergyman, studied theology at Leipsic, in that we have in exchange for some of the 1742, where he supported himself by his finest works of which the world could literary labors and private instruction. In boast. connexion with Ebert, Joh. Elias Schle- CRANBERRY; a small red fruit, progel, Gærtner, Geller, Klopstock, Rawener duced by a slender, wiry plant (vaccinium and other young men, whose labors had a oxycoccos), growing in peaty bogs and favorable influence on the cultivation of marshy grounds in Russia, Sweden, the the German taste, he was actively en- north of England and Germany, and in gaged in editing the Bremischen Beiträge, North America. The leaves are small, and likewise the Sammlung vermischter somewhat oval, and rolled back at the Schriften von den Verfassern der bremischen edges, and the stem is thread-shaped and Beiträge. In 1754, by the influence of trailing. The blossoms are small
, but Klopstock, he was appointed court preach- beautiful, each consisting of four distinct er and consistorial counsellor of king petals, rolled back to the base, and of a Frederic V at Copenhagen, and, in 1765, deep flesh color. The American cranprofessor of theology in the same place. berry (V. macrocarpon), growing in bogs Here he was much respected and beloved, principally, on sandy soils, and on high and received the surname der Eyegode lands, frequent from Canada to Virginia, (the very good). The revolution, which is a larger and more upright plant than caused the downfall of count Struensee the last, with less convex, more oblong, and the queen Caroline Matilda, occa- much larger leaves. The berries are sioned also the disgrace of Cramer, and larger, of a brighter red, and collected in induced him, in 1771, to accept of an great abundance for making tarts, jelly,
&c. They are also exported to Europe, and stilt-like legs, which eminently fit but are not considered there equal to the them for living in marshes and situations Russian cranberries. These fruits are subject to inundations, where they usually collected, in America, by means of a rake; seek their food. This is principally of in Germany, by wooden combs. In Eng- vegetable matter, consisting of the seeds land, they are picked by hand, as they of various plants, or grains plundered grow there but scantily. They are pre- from grounds recently ploughed and sown. served with sugar, much of which is They also devour insects, worms, frogs, required to correct the natural tartness of lizards, reptiles, small fish, and the spawn the berries. In England, they are pre- of various aquatic animals. They build served dry in bottles, corked so closely their nests among bushes, or upon tusas to exclude the external air : some per- sucks in the marshes, constructing them sons, however, fill up the bottles with of rushes, reeds, &c., surmounted by spring water. They keep very long in some soft material, so high that they fresh and pure water. At sea, they are an may cover the eggs in a standing posiagreeable addition to the few articles of tion. They lay but two eggs, for whose diet which can be had. In the Pomarium incubation the male and female alternately Britannicum, by Phillips (London, 1827), take their place on the nest. During the it is stated, that, in 1826, cranberries ar- time that one is thus engaged, the other rived in England from New Holland, acts as a vigilant sentinel ; and, when the which were much superior in flavor to young are hatched, both parents unite in those of Europe and America.
protecting them. The cranes annually CRANE (grus, Pal., &c.); a genus of migrate to distant regions, and perform birds belonging to the order gralla, L.; voyages astonishing for their great length and, by the great Swedish naturalist, and hazardous character. They are recomprised in his extensive genus arded, markable for making numerous circles though properly ranked as a distinct ge- and evolutions in the air, when setting nus by all subsequent naturalists. The out on their journeys, and generally form distinctive characters of this genus are as an isosceles triangle, led by one of the follows: The bill is but little cleft, is com- strongest of their number, whose trumpetpressed, attenuated towards the point, and like voice is heard as if directing their rather obtuse at its extremity; the man- advance, when the flock is far above the dibles are subequal, with vertical margins, clouds, and entirely out of sight. To this the upper being convex, with a wide fur- call-note of the leader the flock frequently row on each side at the base, which be- respond by a united clangor, which, heard comes obliterated before reaching the at such a distance, does not produce an middle of the bill. The nostrils are situ- unpleasing effect. From the sagacity ated in these furrows, and are medial- with which these birds vary their flight, concave, elliptical, pervious, and closed according to the states of the atmosphere, posteriorly by a membrane. The tongue they have, from the earliest ages, been is fleshy, broad and acute. The ophthal- regarded as indicators of events;
and their mic region and lora are feathered, though manœuvres were attentively watched by the head is generally bald, rough, and the augurs and aruspicesma circumstance sometimes crested. The body is cylin- which, together with their general harmdrical, having long and stout feet. The lessness and apparent gravity of demeanor, naked space above the tarsus is extensive, led to their being held in a sort of veneand the latter is more than twice as long ration, even by some civilized nations. as the middle toe. The toes are of mod- When obliged to take wing from the erate length, covered with scutella, or ground, cranes rise with considerable difsmall plates, and submargined; a rudi- ficulty, striking quickly with their wings, mental membrane connects the outer one and trailing their feet along and near the at base; the inner is free; the hind toe is ground, until they have gained a sufficient shorter than a joint of the middle one, and elevation to commence wheeling in ciris articulated with the tarsus, elevated cles, which grow wider and wider, until from the ground; the nails are tile-shaped, they have soared to the highest regions of falculate, and obtuse; the middle one has the air. When their flight is high and its cutting edge entire; the hind nail is silent, it is regarded as an indication of the longest; the wings are moderate, with continued fine weather; they fly low and the first and fifth primaries subequal; the are noisy in cloudy, wet or stormy weather. tail is short, and consists of twelve feathers. Against approaching storms, the cranes, These birds are generally of considerable like various other birds of lofty flight, size, and remarkable for their long necks readily guard, by ascending above the
level of the clouds, and the atmospheric when at a considerable distance above us, currents which bear them; and this indi- we plainly hear the quill-feathers, as their cation of an approaching gust is not lost shafts and webs rub upon one another, sight of by Virgil :
creaking like the joints of a vessel in a -Nunquam imprudentibus imber tempestuous sea (Bartram). The sandObfuit : aut illum surgentem vallibus imis hill crane is common, and breeds in the Aëriæ fugêre grues; aut bucula," &c. savannas of Florida. It is also found in
Georg. I., 373–5.
various parts of the American states and When a flock of cranes is engaged in territories. It is most rare in the middle feeding, or while it is at rest, when the portions of the Union. birds sleep standing on one foot, with the CRANIOLOGY. (See Phrenology.) head under the wing, one of the number CRANK; an iron axis with the end bent acts as sentinel, and keeps a vigilant like an elbow, for the purpose of moving watch, alarming the whole if any enemy a piston, the saw in a sawmill, &c., causapproach or the slightest danger threaten. ing it to rise and fall at every turn; also for Two species of this genus are known to turning a grindstone, &c. The common inhabit the U. States—the whooping crane crank affords one of the simplest and (G. Americana) and the brown or sand- most useful methods for changing circuhill crane (G. Canadensis, Bonap.) The lar into alternate motion, and vice versa. first named derive their trivial appellation Double and triple cranks are likewise of from their loud, clear, piercing cry, which the greatest use for transmitting circular may be heard at the distance of two miles. motion to a distance. In fact, cranks If wounded, they attack the sportsman or belong to those few simple elements on his dog with great spirit, and are said to which the most complicated machines have occasionally driven their long, point- rest, and which, like the lever, are coned bill through the hand of a man. Wil- stantly employed. son states that, during winter, they are CRANMER, Thomas, famous in the Engfrequently seen in the low grounds and lish reformation, during the reign of Henry rice plantations of the Southern States, VIII, was born in 1489. He entered as a seeking for grain and insects. He met student of Jesus college, Cambridge, in with a number of them, on the 10th of 1503, took the degree of M. A., obtained February, near Waccamau river, in South a fellowship, and, in 1523, was chosen Carolina, and saw another flock near reader of theological lectures in his colLouisville, Ky., about the 20th of March. lege, and examiner of candidates for deThey are very shy and vigilant, and, con- grees in divinity. In the course of consequently, shot with difficulty. They versation on the then meditated divorce sometimes rise spirally in the air to a vast of Henry VIII from his first wife, Cathaheight, their mingled screams resembling rine of Arragon, Cranmer remarked that the full cry of a pack of hounds, even the question of its propriety might be when they are almost out of sight. They better decided by consulting learned diare distinguished from other cranes by vines and members of the universities than the comparative baldness of their heads, by an appeal to the pope. The opinion and by the broad flag of plumage project- thus delivered having been reported to the ing over the tail. Their general color is king by doctor Fox, his majesty was highpure white. The brown or sandhill crane ly delighted with it, exclaiming, at the is of an ash color, generally, with shades or prospect it afforded him of being able to clouds of pale-brown and sky-blue: brown remove the obstacles to the gratification prevails upon the shoulders and back. of his passions, “By
- the man has It is a very stately bird, being above six got the sow by the right ear!” Cranmer feet long, from the toes to the point of was sent for to court, made a king's chapthe beak, when extended, and its wings lain, and commanded to write a treatise measure eight or nine feet from tip to tip. on the subject of the divorce. In 1530, When standing erect, the sandhill crane is he was sent abroad, with others, to collect full five feet high ; the tail is quite short, the opinions of the divines and canonists but the feathers pendent on each side of of France, Italy and Germany, on the the rump are very long, of a delicate validity of the king's marriage. At Rome, silky softness, and sharp-pointed. The he presented his treatise to the pope, and crown of the head is bare of feathers, and afterwards proceeded to Germany, where of a reddish rose color, but thinly barbed he obtained for his opinions the sanction with short, stiff, black hair. When the of a great number of German divines and wings are moved in flight, their strokes civilians, and formed such intimate conare slow, moderate and regular, and, even nexions with the rising party of the Prot
estants, as probably influenced greatly his confession, vows of chastity and the necesfuture conduct. He also contracted mar- sity of private masses.
Cranmer opposriage, though in holy orders, with the ed, as long as he dared, this enactment; niece of doctor Osiander, a famous Protes- but, finding his efforts vain, he gave way, tant divine. Cranmer was employed by and sent his own wife back to her friends the king to conclude a commercial treaty in Germany. He subsequently succeeded between England and the Netherlands; in carrying some points in favor of further after which he was ordered home, to take reformation; and, in 1540, he published a possession of the metropolitan see of Can- work for popular use, chiefly of his own terbury. He hesitated to accept of this composition, entitled the Necessary Erudignity, professing to be scrupulous about dition of a Christian Man. On the death applying to the pope for the
bulls necessa- of Henry, in 15467, the archbishop was ry for his consecration. This difficulty left one of the executors of his will
, and was obviated by a vague and secret prot- member of the regency appointed to govestation, which can be justified only on ern the kingdom during the minority of the Jesuitical principle of the lawfulness Edward VI. He united his interest with of mental reservations or virtual falsehoods. that of the earl of Hertford, afterwards The application being therefore made in duke of Somerset, and proceeded to modthe usual manner to the court of Rome, el'the church of England according to the the pall and bulls were sent. Soon after, notions of Zuinglius, rather than those of he set the papal authority at defiance, by Luther. By his instrumentality, the liturpronouncing sentence of divorce between gy was drawn up and established by act Henry and Catharine, and confirming the of parliament, and articles of religion king's marriage with Anne Boleyn. The were compiled, the validity of which was pope threatened excommunication, and enforced by royal authority, and for which an act of parliament was immediately infallibility was claimed." Under Cranpassed for abolishing the pope's suprema- mer's ecclesiastical government, Joan Bocy, and declaring the king chief head of cher and George van Paris were burnt as the church of England. The archbishop heretics; and the fate of the former is employed all his influence in forwarding rendered peculiarly striking by the fact such measures as inight give permanence that the primate, by his spiritual authority to the reformation. The Bible was trans- and pressing importunity, constrained the lated into English, and dispersed among young king to sign the death warrant for the people; the monastic institutions were the auto-da-fé of the unhappy criminal, suppressed; the superstitious observances which he would not do till he had disburconnected with them were abolished; and dened his own conscience, by telling the provision was made for the instruction of archbishop that, if the deed were sinful, he all ranks in the principles of the prevailing should answer for it to God. The excluparty. In 1536, the casuistry of Cranmersion of the princess Mary from the crown, was a second time exerted to gratify the by the will of her brother, was a measure base passions of his tyrannical sovereign. in which Cranmer joined the partisans of When Anne Boleyn was destined to lose lady Jane Grey, apparently in opposition her reputation and her life, that the king to his own judgment. With others who might take another consort, it was deter- had been most active in her elevation, he mined also to bastardize her issue; and the was sent to the Tower on the accession archbishop meanly stooped to pronounce of Mary. That princess had personal a sentence of divorce, on the plea that the obligations to Cranmer, who is said to queen had confessed to him her having have preserved her from the anger of her been contracted to lord Percy, before her father, which menaced her with destrucmarriage with the king. The compli- tion, for her pertinacious adherence to the ances of the primate served to ensure him Catholic faith ; but she could not forget or the gratitude of Henry, though he was forgive the disgrace of her mother and obliged to make some important sacrifices herself, in effecting which, the archbishop to royal prejudice, which was strongly in had been so important an agent; he was favor of the ancient faith, where that did therefore destined to become the victim not tend to curb the king's own passions of popish ascendency. He was tried beor prerogatives. In 1539 was passed an fore commissioners sent from Rome, on act of parliament, called the bloody act, the charges of blasphemy, perjury, inconcondemning to death all why supported tinence and heresy, and cited to appear the right of marriage of priests, and com- within 80 days at Rome, to deliver, in munion of both kinds to the lajty, and person, his vindication to the pope. To who opposed transubstantiation, auricular comply with this mandate was impossible, as he was detained in prison; nevertheless where he behaved with the resolution of he was declared contumacious for not a martyr, keeping his right hand, with making his appearance, and sentenced to which he had signed his recantation, exbe degraded and deprived of office. After tended in the flames, that it might be conthis, flattering promises were made, which sumed before the rest of bis body, exclaiminduced him to sign a recantation of his ing, from time to time, “ That unworthy alleged errors, and become, in fact, a hand !" He was executed March 21, Catholic convert. The triumph of his 1555—6. The fate of Cranmer has shed enemies was now complete, and nothing a false lustre over his character, and pro was wanting but the sacrifice of their cured him the reputation of a Protestant abused and degraded victim. Oxford martyr, while he was, in reality, the vicwas the scene of his execution; but, to tim of party malice and personal revenge. make the tragedy more impressive, he Successively a Catholic, a Lutheran, a was placed on a scaffold in St. Mary's Zuinglian, a defender of transubstantiation, church, the day he was to suffer, there to and then a persecutor of those who belisten to a declaration of his faults and lieved that doctrine, the soundness, if not heresies, his extorted penitence, and the the sincerity of his faith, may fairly be necessity of his expiating, by his death, questioned. Even the purity of bis moerrors which Heaven alone could pardon, tives, as a reformer, is rendered somewhat but which were of an enormity too por- doubtful, by the fact of his having obtentous to be passed over by an earthly tained, on very advantageous terms, nutribunal. Those who planned this pro- merous grants of estates which had beceeding accomplished but half their ob- longed to suppressed monasteries. His ject. Instead of confessing the justness private character, however, was amiable ; of his sentence, and submitting to it in and, whatever may have been his princisilence, or imploring mercy, he calmly ples, no doubts can exist as to the eminence acknowledged that the fear of death had of his talents. His continued favor with made him belie his conscience; and de- the capricious Henry is a decisive proof clared that nothing could afford him con- of his mental superiority. He steadily pursolation but the prospect of extenuating sued his grand object, the independence his guilt by encountering, as a Protestant of the English church, to the establishpenitent, with firmness and resign on, ment of which he contributed far beyond the fiery torments which awaited him. any other individual. He was immediately hurried to the stake,
Note to the Article COLOMBIA, in this Volume. According to our promise in that article, we give here the principal facts which have occurred in Colombia since the article went to press, though there is no prospect of a speedy establishment of tranquillity in that country. In the month of January, 1830, Venezuela declared herself independent of Colombia, at the instigation of general Paez. Some accounts say he compelled the Venezuelians to take this step. Bolivar, about the same time, solemnly declared, at Bogotá, every imputation against him as aiming at a crown to be false. A convention is now assembled for the purpose of preparing a new constitution for Colombia. The character of the projected constitution, according to the accounts which have been received, is quite liberal. Whether it is adapted to the state of the country, is another consideration. Bolivar js said to he sinking in popularity. He retired in February temporarily from the government, on account of ill health. It is reported that Paez is using forcible means to compel the Venezuelians to remain separate from Colombia, with which they are disposed to unite under a federal government.