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Reply to A. F. respecting Dr. Bekker.
653 ster los Cometés, in 8vo. La Saine Theo- Robinson's Remarks. Mosheim, in his logie; Explicatio Prophetiæ Danielis, in Ecclesiastical History, (C. xvii.'S. 1, 410. &c."
No. xxxv ) from that neglect of disIn the volume of Robinson's crimination, too common, and not alWorks, quoted by your Correspon- wavs undesigned, classes Bekker with dent, there is another allusion to Dr. Spinosa, and imputes to him a design Bekker, by which it appears ihat one of using “the principles of Des Cartos, of the charges brought against him, to overturn some doctrines of Christwas that which I fear may be brought ianity, and to pervert others." against almost every thinking, serious A larger account of Bekker and his divine, who is so unfortunate as to be World Bewitched, published in 1691, a member of any of those Anti-Christ- will be found in Part II. S. 2, No. ian communities, the handy-work of xxxv. of the same History. But the kingcraft, priestcraft and statecraft- fullest satisfaction can offer your civil establishments of religion. The Correspondent, is by quoting some Dutch synod condemned the Doctor, passages, and especially the coneluding " because he had explained the Holy paragraph, from the Article Balthasar Scriptures so as to make themi contrary Bekker, Biog. Dici. 1784. to the Catechism, and particularly to He was born in 1634, “ at Warththe articles of faith, which he had pisen, in the province of Groningen," himself subscribed."* Mr. Robinson, in whose university he was educated. however, finishes the paragraph quoted in 1665, while minister atOosterlingen, by your Correspondent, by giving it as " he took his degree of Doctor of Di. his opinion, that " although Dr. B. vinity, at Francker, and the next year was reputed a Deist, he was a fast was chosen one of the ministers of that friend of revelation, and all bis crime city.”. He had published " A Short lay in expounding some literal pas- Catechism for Children, and another sages allegorically. Not the book, ut for Persons of mare advanced Age." the received meaning of it he denied."I The latter was censured as containing
When I was in Holland about “ strange expressions, unscriptural potwenty-five years since, I turned over sitions, and dangerous opinions," for Dr. Bekker's Heretical Work alluded which “ the author was prosecuted be. to, and which passed through several fore the ecclesiastical assemblies," and editions. Notwithstamling it abounds for four years endured “ much trouble with singular opinions and fancies, it and vexation.". displays much learning, ingenuity and " In 1679 he was chosen minister entertainment.
at Amsterdam. The comet which ap You will perceive by the account of peared in 1680 and 1681 gave him an the French Biographier, that although opportunity of publishing a small book, the synod first suspended, and after. in Low Dutch, entitled, Ondersoch over wards deprived the learned but here- de Kometei, that is, An Inquiry concerntical divine of his functions, they con- ing Comets, wherein he endeavoured to tinued him his salary. Should other shew that comets are not the presages ecclesiastical bodies take it into their or forerunners of any evil. This piece heads to inquire into the heterodoxy gained him great reputation, as did of their members, should they act likewise his Erposition on the Prophct with similar liberality, and only de- Daniel, wherein he gave many proofs prive them of their employments, it will of his learning and sound judgment. not perhaps render the proceedings of But the Work which rendered hiin those learned bodies very alarming to most famous, is his De Betoner Wereld, the generality of ecclesiastics. or The World Bewitched. He enters B. FLOWER into an inquiry of the common opinion
concerning spirits, their nature and Sir, Clapton, Nov. 9, 1816. power, anthority and actions; as also YOUR Correspondent A. F. (p: 594) what men can do by their power and in several Works which preceded Mr. that it grieved him to see the great
honours, powers, and miracles which • Dictionnaire Historique, &c. Vol. II. are ascribed to the devil. It is come P. 428.
to that pass,' says he, ‘that men think # Robinson's Works, Vol. I. p. 84. it piety and godliness to ascribe a great Ibid. p. 78.
many wonders to the devil, and im
piety and heresy if a man will not be- This contrast of the biographer relieve that the devil can do what a minds me of the following lines which thousand persons say he does. It is I have somewhere read as written in now reckoned godliness, if a man who complinient to Pope : fears God, fear also the devil. If he
“ What te thy outward form all-righteous be not afraid of the devil, he passes for
ihear'n an Atheist, who does not believe in
Deny'd, to thy more perfect mind was God, because he cannot think that
gir'n; there are two Gods, the one good, the So vicely pois'd great Nature's scale we other bad. But these, I think, with inuch inore
reason may be called So just thou uniform deformity." Ditheists. For my part, if on ac- The case of this persecuted theologian count of my opinion they will give me attracted the attention of Mr. Locke, a new name, let them call me Mo- who during his cxile in Holland, from notheist, a believer of but one God.'
; 1682 to 1689, had probably net with This work raised a great clamour Bekker at Amsterdani, in the society against Bekker, The consistory at of Professor Limborch, to whom he Ainsterdam, the classes and synods, thus writes fronz London, 14th Noproceeded against him, and after having vember, 1091:suspended hin froin the holy commu
“ Quid tandem factum est cum doctore nion, deposed him at last from the isto theologo qui tam mira docuit de anoffice of a minister. The magistrates gelis, in libro suo, de spirituum existentia ? of Amsterdam were so generous, how- An non expertus est fratrun suoruin pro ever, as to pay him his salary as long religione, pro veritate, pro: orthodaria as he lived." A very odd medal was zelun?' Alirum si impunè etadat." In struck in Holland, on his deposition: the margin of the Familiar Letters it represented a devil, cloathed like a (1708, p. 535), is printed Balthasar minister, riding upon an ass, and hold. Bekker.** ing a banner in his hand, as a proof of I recollect also to have once seen a the victory, which he gained in the respectful reference to Bekker and his synods. With the medal was published opinion, in the preface to a French a small piece, in Dutch, to explain it; translation of Dr. Sykes's Inquiry into in which was an account of what had the Meaning of Demoniacs, &c. primed, been done in the consistory classes and I think, at Leyden, in 1738. synods. Bekker died of a pleurisy, But it would be unjust to the meJune 11, 1698."
mory of this innovating theologian, not In the Nouveau Dictionnaire Histo- to shew how Dr. Bentley has avoided rique, Paris, 1772, is a short article of the fault of Dr. Mosheim, and even
Bekker, whose design in the work for left Bekker in orthodox company. I which he was persecuted is thus de- refer to his Remarks on the Discourse of scribed : “ Le livre est fait pour prouver, Frce-thinking, in which he has been qu'il n'y a jamais eu, ni possedé, ni sorcier,
severe enough against Collins, and, ocet que
les diables ne se mélent pas des af- casionally, more severe than just. The faires des hommes, et ne peuvent rien sur latter, in the Discourse (pp. 28-30), leur personnes.
had attributed the prevalence of a beThe article closes in the following lief in diabolical agency to the influence terms, contrasting the disadvantageous of priests, and its declíne to a freedom forin of Bekker with his agreeable cha- of thinking encouraged at the Revoluracter and accomplishments : “BEK- tion. Bentley, under the character of KER étoit horriblement laid ; mais il avoit Phileleutherus Lipsiensis, or a Lover of l'esprit assez juste. . Ses maurs étoient Truth, at Leipsic, thus replies to his pures, et son "une ferme et incapable de professed correspondent in England: plier.”+
“ What then has lessened, in En* That book is designed to prove that there never was really a professed sorcerer, • What has been done, at last, with that and that devils have no influence in the learned divine who has broached such concerns of men nor power over their strange opinions concerning angels in his persons.
book on the existence of spirits? Will be + Bekker was shockingly deformed, but not prore the zeal of bis brethren for rehe possessed a correct understanding. His ligion, for the truth, for orthodoxy? It manners were pure, with a strength of mind will be strange indeed if he escape with incapable of unworthy compliance. impunity.
657 gland, your stories of sorceries? Not ting some useful discussion on synothe growing sect, but the growth of nimes, I shall present you with a few philosophy and medicine. No thanks quotations from Cicero. Let it not be to Atheists, but to the Royal Society supposed, however, that I wish to deand College of Physicians; to the preciate the nierits of that great mas* Bayles and Newtons, the Sydenhams ier of wisdom and rhetoric. Whoever and Ratcliffs. When the people saw does not adınire, or rather adore every the diseases they had imputed to witch- particle of his original, profound, elocraft quite cured by a course of physic, quent, and truly classical compositions, they ioo were cured of their former is to be pitied for want of true taste, error. They learned truth by the rather than convicted of bad judgment. event, not by a false position, à priori, - Language has two offices--one to exthat there was neither witch, devil, nor press meaning, another to produce God. And then as to the frauds and harmony: the purposes of harmony impostures in this way, they have most require inany insignificant particles, of them been detected by the clergy: beautiful tautologies, and elegant exThe two strongest books I have read pletives. My object is simply to point on this subject, were both written by out a few of the beautiful tautologies priests, the one by Dr. Bekker, in or elegant expletives which abound in Holland, and the oiher by a Doctor of the incomparable compositions of the your own, whose name I've forgot, divine Tully. Such words as I conthat was afterwards Archbishop of sider tautological, I shall distinguish York."Remarks, 8th ed. 1742, by italics; and let it be observed that pp. 48, 49.
though I am not satisfied with, any It is obvious how little to Dr. Bent- thing I have yet seen on the doctrine ley's parpose, or rather how directly of synouimes, and though I have opposed io his conclusion, was the case thought a good deal on the subject, I of Bekker, who for ceasing to be a am far from assuming any infallibility priest, or authoritative supporter of an of opinion, or attempting to dogmalize, established dogma, had been persecuted and ought to be considered (even if a by all the priests of a consistory, and heretic) as only provoking mild and saved from want only by the kind con- fair discussion. sideration of the civil magistrates. Sintque pares in amore et æquales.com
Can atiy of your readers say who was amicitiarum sua cuique permanent the Doctor whose naine the pretended stalilis et certa possessio. Quin etiain Leipsic theologian did not choose to necesse erit cupere et oplare ut quam recollect, and who had been Archbishop sæpissime peccet amicus—necesse erit of York before 1713—the date of the angi, dolere invidere.-Sunt firmi et staRemarks? During that year Dr. Sharpbiles et constantes eligendi- quis natura died, who had filled the See of York desiderat abundantiam et copiam--sic ever since 1692. He was an intimate habendum est nullam in amicitiis friend of Tillotson, and might be more pestein esse majorem quam aduladisposed to racional innovation than tionem, blanditium, assentationem.-Quiinany of his contemporaries.
bus nihil opis est in ipsis ad bene leuteR.
que vivendum, iis omnis gravis est
ætas.--Nec vero corpori soli subveni. SIR,
Nov. 2, 1816. endum est sed menti atque animo multo of your classic and learned readers nibil esse tam inimicum quam volupto a subject of great logical importance. tatem.-guin nihil sit aninus admisIt has been long assumed as a kind of tum nihil concretum nihil copulatum axiolo by rhetoricians, that there are nihil congmentatum nihil duplex. Qnod hardly iwo words in any language cum ita sit, certe nec secerni nec dividi which have precisely the same idea; nec discerni nec distrahi potest.-- Mens but with much deference to venerable enim et ratio et consilinin, in senibus. opinions, I think the converse of the The above are a few quotations seabove position the true one, namely, lected without much searching; and that there is hardly any idea which your classic readers know that if all may not in every language be expressed similar words were marked in italics, by several words, or different modes of the compositions of Cicero would apspeech. With the intention of iovi- pear richly gemmed with elegant tau.
tologies. Some of the above syno- “ A woman who had been an innimes are merely different spellings, habitant of Zugarramurdi, went into or forms of the same word: mens is à France with her father, and was there contraction of animens, the same as persuaded by a witch (whose name animus, anima, contraction of TrvEvua, the inquisitors could not discover) to *TVEVļwe, &c. from TTVEW, Truri, a accompany her to the Aquelane, softened form or Thew, Ao, blow, where she was told she would enjoy which primarily signifies to move,
herself wonderfully. She consented, whatever it be connected with; as air, went, — found the Devilt presiding water, &c. for fleo, fo, pluo, &c. are
there, and on her knees repounced merely different spellings of the same
her God ;-but being required to re. word. Were it not that etymology is
nounce the Virgin also, she refused below the notice of an elegant rheto- to proceed, though she did acknowrician, we might wonder that Cicero ledge the Devil as her lord and mas "should have gravely inquired whether ter. This excited the rage of her sisteranimus was anime or ignis, and then witches, who marked her out as the left the matter in solemn doubt, by object of their constant persecution. déclaring that he was not like some, nonths
in corninunion with them, but
She continued, however, eighteen mashamed to confess wherein he was ignorant.
constantly tancying the Devil could When animus is employed like soul, not be the God he pretended. Her (from halo) metaphorically to denote uneasiness of mind increased daily, mind or the rational part, thing, act and when Lent arrived she deteror whatever it should be called, I can- mived to go to confession, but not to not distinguish any meaning in it dif- own her witchcraft-she attended ferent from ratio, which seems to me
mass, and to her astonishment found like rate, reck, reckon, reason, &c. that she could neither see the holy nothing but' rect or right, with what wafer when it was offered to her, nor
is called a substantive termination. the host when it was elevated; noHence right reason or recta ratio is thing but a black cloud appeared bemerely right rightness, or straight estraightness (compounded of ex or est, place where witches assemble to celebrate
This is the prorincial name for tbe and rect or right); and wrong reason
their mysteries. is crooked right, that is a plain contra- + He is thus described (tr. verbatim) Viction.
in another part of the details of the auto, "Perhaps some will think that we are on the authority of the different witnesses. stretching what has been called meta- “He is seated on a throne, which sontephysical etymology too far; but unless times appears of gold, and sometimes of We rectify the instrument of logic, ebony. He has a gloomy, careless, ugly that'is logos or language, our opinions countenance. He is quite black, and will on most subjects continue to be wears on his head a crown of thorns, three hot rational or right, but crooked or of wbich are larger tban the rest, riz. ** wrong ETYMOLOGUS.
one on each side, and one on his fore
head, from whence a light proceeds Narrative of a celelrated Auto de Fé, in brighter tban that of the moon, but
dimmer than that of the sun, with which the City of Logrono.
he illumines the Aquelane. His eyes are (Continued from p. 577.] large, round, widely opened, flaming and CHE principal band of wizards frightful. His beard is shaped like a zeal and diligence of our holy inqui- goat-like. He has fingers all of equal sitors, was one accustomed io meet length on his bands and feet, and his nails for the celebration of their “ infernal
are sharp as the talons of a bird of prey. sites” at Zugarramurdi, a village in His fingers are crooked and his feet are the valley of Bantan, at the foot of the webbed like those of a gonse. His voice Pyrenean mountains. Fifty or sixty of a mule, but not quite so loud. His
is fearful, discordant, like the braying persons composed this assembly,
pronunciation is bad, and he ofteu speaks which was interrupted, and its mem- unintelligibly. His tone is glooms and bers handed over to the “mercy" of harsh, but full of dignity and arrogances our tribunal, in consequence of the He constantly looks in a melancholy hufollowing circumstances.
mour, and seems unceasingly angry."
Narrative of a celebrated Auto de Fé in the City of Logrono. 659 fore her fand it is acknowledged by sitting in the kitchen, surrounded by all that on becoming witches they her friends, whom she had collected cease to see the Holy Sacrament). together, anticipating this visit on Her mind was tortured by this circum- account of its being the Aquelane stance, and she was at the very door night. The Devil and two or three of death, when she determined to con- others then hid themselves behind a fess every thing, and she sent for a bench, from whence they just shewed Jearned priest, who, though he cheered their head, and beckoned to the woand consoled her, refused to grant man to come away with them. This absolution without consulting the was in vain, and they next lifted up Bishop of Bayonne, but from this their hands, and threatened her in time forward she could see the conse- every, possible manner. She then crated bread, and she left the diaboli- called loudly on her friends for a cal sect to which she had been at- sistance, pointing to the place where tached,
the Devil was, but the Devil had This woman afterwards returned to 'blinded their eyes, and they could see Zugarramurdi, and denounced the nothing. She continued crying " leave jonta of witches which assembled me traitors, I have followed Satan too there. Among these was Maria Yur- fong already"--and then elevating her retegnia (who afterwards became the rosary, “ this will I follow, this will principal evidence under our commission protect me.". On hearing which the wgainst the accused). She denied the Devil and the witches Aed with a charge at first with furious-ravings, great noise, and to revenge themselves oaths and threats of vengeance; but they tore up all the cabbages in the the woman protesting that if pub- garden, destroyed all the trees in the licly confronted with her she would orchard, and then went to a mill, · prove her crimes, was led to her rented by a relation of Yurretegiria, - house and there convinced every one where they were joined by a legion
present of the truth of her accusa- of demons, who lifted up the mill tions; for Yurreteguia fell down in an from the pillars on which it was built, agony, making signs that something and carried it through the air to the in her throat prevented her uttering top of the mountain, where they all the truth. On recovering, she heaved danced round it, laughing and singa deep sigh, and a pestiferous stench ing: the most aged of the witches, issued from her inourh. She then being as active as the rest, shouted owned her guilt in its fullest extent, “ girls here, though old women at and that she had been a witch from home;" and afterwards they carried her very childhood up. The Vicar, of back the mill to its place, after breakZugarramurdi was sent for, to whom ing the machinery and hurling the she confessed all she knew, prayed mill-stone into the water. forgiveness for all the injuries done to The Devil endeavoured to corrupt her neighbours, and from this time Maria, and to weaken the force of she began to see the host which be- this evidence, but she persevered, and fore she had never been able to dis was rewarded by the tenderness shewn tinguish.
her, in consequence of her disposition The Devil feeling his critical situa- to communicate all she knew. 'When tion, and the alarming evil which the other criminals were being exhiwould result- from this discovery, ad- bited, she was allowed to put off the dressed the wizards at their next garments of degradation, and to return meeting, and it was determined to go home -a striking instance of mercy to Yarreteguia's house and to bring from her judges, and of recompence her by force to the Aquelane. For for the frankness and firmness of her this purpose they took the fornis of confessions!" divers animals, dogs, cats, pigs and The next paper will give the regoats, and hurried on the Devil at port of the inquisitors on the discotheir head) to her dwelling, having veries they made of the proceedings of left the noviciates and inexpert young the Devil at Zugarramurdi and other wizards behind them in the garden. places.' The Devil then opened the doors and
B. windows, and introduced all his fol. lowers. Their intended victim was