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Review.-Scott's Lectures on the Devil.


of false gods, not of the Devil : of idols, which the verse stands connected, even which were without life ; and, therefore, with common attention. It is said, that could not be the Devil. The same word all the priests and Levites throughout occurs in Psalm cvi. 37, where our trans. Israel resorted to Rehoboam, king of lators also read devils, but which the Judah, because Jeroboam, king of Israel, Septuagint has again rendered by daing and his sons, had rejected them from the 91015, dæmons; and this is clearly the performance of the priestly functious to meaning of the Psalmist ; for, in con. the Lord, and constituted priests of hillnexion with these dæmons, (ver. 38,) he worship, for the goats and the calves that refers to thein as the idols of Canaan ; he had made. You see, Jeroboam and the viudictive and destructive dæmons, his sons made these hairy idol deities ; such as Moloch, Baalim, &c., to whom they could not therefore be the Devil, they sacrificed their sons and daughters. por any of his angels, since these could

« In Lev. xvii. 7, the Israelites are not be manufactured either by the king commanded, now that they had left of Israel or the princes, his sons."-Pp. Egypt, no more to offer their sacrifices to 59–61. (orywb) sheirim, unto dæmons ; i. e. says Dr. Taylor, * 'the hairy deities wor- The Lecturer then explains the shiped in Egypt; such as oxen, dogs, terms and phrases Lucifer (Isa. xiv. wolves, monkies, goats. Bochart.' It is 12), the great serpent and Leviathan to these that Moses refers, and pot, cer. (ib. xxvii. 1), Belial (Deut. xiii. 13, tainly, to any such being as the Devil, &c.), and some others that have been who cannot be a hairy animal, if he be, fancifully interpreted of the chief of as it is said, a spirit. Consequently he the evil spirits; and concludes with could not be here intended by Moses, who had no kind of acquaintance with stating that the whole evidence, froin him, or with his serpentine ways ;' nor

the Scriptures of the Old Testament, did he know any thing at all about him.t relating to the Claims of the Devil, It appears, however, that the Israelites has been investigated, and that in the had been accustomed, when in Egypt, to entire volume no such being is to be join in the worship of cats, dogs and goats, discovered, if the Bible is allowed to and other such disgusting idols : hence be its own interpreter. it is that Moses so rigorously forbids them Mr. Scott begins in Lect. IV. his any more to slaughter their sacrifices to

examination of the New Testament. these hairy deities, after which he tells This Lecture is confined to the applithem they hankered; and on account of cation of the word Satan in the four this debasing and abominable hankering, the severe punishment of death was to be Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles, inflicted on the offender. The same word and in the text (Matt. xii. 26) and the is used in 2 Chron. xi. 15, and, of course, other places is explained to mean an the same kind of goat-worship must be adversary to the person spoken of, an intended; and this you will find to be enemy to Christ or his cause, as will the case if you read the passage with be seen by the following table : “ Matt. iv. 10,

Mark i. 13, (1.) (Temptation) personal adversary.
Luke iv. 8.
Matt. xii. 26,
Mark iii. 23, 26, (2.) Demoniacal or idolatrous worship.
Luke xi. 18.
Matt. xvi. 21. (3.) Peter, a personal adversary.
Mark iv, 15. (4.) Enemies to the gospel.
Luke x. 17. (5.) The same.
Luke xiii. 10. (6.) Applied to the woman afflicted with the rigidity of the

Luke xxii. 31. (7.) Enemies to Jesus and to Peter.

Luke xixi:.3; } Applied by these evangelists, and not by Jesus, to Judas.

Luke xxii. 3.
Acts xxvi. 16. Idolatry; used by Jesus after his ascension.
Acts v. 3. Applied by Peter to the covetousness of Ananias."

P. 84, Note. * “ Concord. R. 1994, III.

to be. The Egyptians of Mendès were, “ The prohibition evidently alludes in particular, noted for this sort of idoto the worship of Pan, under the form of latry, which was highly obscene and lasa goat, or other wild hairy animal, such civious. See Bochart, Hieroz. L. xi. C. as the fawns and satyrs were represented liii. p. 1; Geddes' Crit. Rem.

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In this Lecture occur the following him. Coretousness was the Satanas judicious observations on the case of which entered Judas, and taking the full Judas :

possession of his mind, became his bane, “ In Luke xxii. 3, we are informed, Devil obtaining the use of his body, and

his enemy, his adversary, and not the that at the approach of the Passover at which Jesus suffered, Satanas entered carrying him to the Jewish rulers": he

had, on several occasions, manifested the into Judas, surnamed Iscariot, who was of the number of the twelve. This is his mind. We must either admit this

great influence of this base passion on inentioned by John xiii. 27, to which the

cor truction of the word, or that Judas following observations will equally apply.

was considered by our Lord as the Devil John also reports another espression of himself, or one of his angels : * Have not our Lord's which will serve to illustrate these two passages. In chap. vi. 70, devil?' In that case how are we to ac

I chosen you twelve, and one of you is a Jesus, in addressing his disciples, said, count for his choosing him as one of his • Have not I chosen you twelve, and one of you is a devil ?' diabolos. No one of making him his purse-bearer? But it

immediate and select disciples, and eren you ever supposed that Judas was that

was this office which brought the princievil

, malignant spirit called the Devil : if ple of covetousness into action. When he were not, what was he? An accuser, he saw that Jesus was completely in the a traitor, an adversary. We have already seen that such is the meaning of Shatan power of the Jewish rulers, he was eriin the Old Testament, and we shall, in he found that he had irrecorerably be

dently astonished and disappointed. When its proper place, have occasion to shew trayed innocence, even his corelousness you that our translators themselves have forsook him ; he went to the council, so rendered the word Diabolos, in the confessed his guilt, and returned the New Testament. Satanas and Diabolos

money. Would the Devil, whose enmity are, therefore, in these passages used as

to Christ is said to be always running, as synonymous terms. What then are we

it to understand by Satanas entering into done this? The conduct of Judas, as

were, in a stream against him, have Judas, if it were not the Devil personating him, or getting possession of him? If rendered his Master into the power of his

soon as he discovered that he had surwe look at the next verse, we shall find that Judas, under the influence of his proof of the Devil's having nothing to do

enemies beyond deliverance, is a sufficient covetous disposition, went and commuued with it, but that he was solely actuated with the chief priests and captains of the by his avaricious disposition. The shockTemple, how he might deliver Jesus unto them. That this was his own voluntary, were suffocation by the cord, or anguish

ing catastrophe of his death, whether it base act, appears from ver. 5; ' And they were glad, and covenanted to give the love of money which induced him to

mind, tends also to shew that it was him money.' This was exactly what he wished, and what he seems to have him. into the possession of his inveterate and

think of delivering his Friend and Master self proposed. He then engaged to seek

malignant enemies."-Pp. 77–79. a convenient opportunity to deliver Jesus up to them, apart from the multitude,

The Vth Lecture, (from 2 Cor. not doubting but that Jesus, in conse

xii. 7,) contains an inquiry into the quence of the great power which he had meaning of the term Satan in the thirso often seen him display, would easily teen acknowledged Epistles of Paul, be able to rescue himself from any force they might bring in order to apprehend the result of which is thus stated :

“ In the thirteen epistles which are generally ascribed to the Apostle Paul, he has used the term Satanas in only five of them; and, in these five letters, ten times. The author of the Epistic to the Hebrews has not made use of it. “ (1.) Rom. xvi. 20, it designates, the persecutors of the Roman converts. (2.) I Cor. v. 5,

excommunication for a time. (3.) 1 Cor. vii, 7,

the violation of marriage vows. (4.) 2 Cor. ii. 11,

personal opponent to Paul. (5.) 2 Cor. xi. 14,

false apostles. (6.) 2 Cor. xii. 7,

corporeal infirmity. (7.) I Thess, ii. 18,

Jews, persecuting Paul and Silas. (8.) 2 Thess. ii. 9,

the same persons still persecuting Paul. (9.) 1 Tim. i. 20,

excommunication, (10.) I Tim. v. 15,

idolatrous indulgencies.”—P. 104, Nole. In the same manner are explained, in the conclusion of the Lecture, the three or four examples of the use of the term Satan in the book of the Revelation.

Review.- Scott's Lectures on the Deril.


viii. 44,

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Lectures VI. and VII. are upon the meaning of the word Diabolos or Devil, in the four Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles. The author's view of it may be seen in the following summary:

“ This term is used five times by our Lord, as follows:
“ (1.) Matt. xiii. 29, where it refers to human enemies of the gospel.
(2.) Matt. xxv. 41,

the Roman civil power.
(3.) Luke viii. 12,

human enemies of the gospel, as in Matt.

süi. 29. (4.) John vi. 70,

Judas Iscariot (5.)

the Jewish Sanhedrin. By John, xiii. 2,

to the avarice of Judas. Peter, Acts x, 38,

to every species of sickness and disease. Paul, xiji. 10, the opposition of Bar-Jesus to the gospel."

P. 152, Note. On the difficult passage, Matt. xxv. such a limitation of this highly figurative 41, Mr. Scott says,

discourse, and who consider the whole

of it as relating to the general day of “ We have three distinct partics re- retribution : there are others, perhaps, ferred to in this parabolical representa- who, like Bishop Pearce and some other tion: men, under the emblem of sheep; learned men, think it probable that ch. men, under the emblem of goats; and xxiv. and xxv. to ver. 30, refer to the those who are included under the em destruction of Jerusalem, and its conseblem of Diabolos and bis angels, who quences to Jews and Christians; but that must be men also, since meu are to be the next sixteen verses must be descripassociated with them, as having been tire of the day of judgment, emphatically guilty of similar crimes. If they were not so called. Allow me to ask you, whether intended to be men, the unity of the it be common justice to intlict the same parable is destroyed. The sheep repre- punishment on those human beings, who sent the mildness and innocency of those are here represented under the metaphor who befriended the followers of Clırist, of goats, and whose sphere of actiou was and who practised towards them the due necessarily limited, as on those who pos. ties of hospitality, kindness and huma- sessed the power and the inclination of benity. The goats are emblematic of those ing so much more extensively wicked, and Jews who were violent and infuriated in who are supposed to have been so from their treatment of those, among their before the foundation of this our world, own nation, who embraced Christianity, since there is no account of so important and who were inhospitable, unkind and a fact as a rebellion among the inhabi. inhuman to them, particularly when sick, tants of heaven on record, except in the or in distress, or in prison. The sheep fictions of Heathen and Christian poets ? were to be rewarded by an admission If Diabolos and his angels were such into the Messiah's kingdom. The goats beings as they are generally believed to were to be consigned to the same kind be, who had been engaged in the intelof punishment which had been prepared lectual and moral pursuits of a heavenly for Diabolos, their common Heathen ene- state, and had rebelled and fallen froni my; for the Roman civil power was as that state of purity, dignity and glory, inimical to the Jews as to the Christians, in which they were created and had making no discrimination between them mored, the punishment prepared for such during the interval referred to. The high and elevated creatures could not be angels or messengers of Diabolos were at all suited to those human beings, here those persons who were active in accu- represented under the term goats, whose sing, betraying and persecuting the Chris- specified crimes were but few, aud which tians. All the characters, then, which were confined in their operation. The are employed in the parabolical repre- natures of the goats and of Diabolos and sentation, are necessarily human; and, his angels have no one point of coincidence particularly, as the scene of the parable or correspondence. The punishment, is limited to actions performed during therefore, of these heavenly rebels could the period between the resurrection of not be calculated for human beings. The Jesus and the destruction of Jerusalem. duties incumbent on these spirits, who Heuce none of them can have any refer- are represented as having been hurled euce whatever to an all.powerful, malig, from heaven, like Vulcan in the Heathen nant, or superhuman being, at the head mythology, were so far superior, and so of an army of spirits as malicious as widely different from those of the goats, himself.

that it is impossible for the punishment “ There are some among you, no attending the respective violation of them doubt, who feel a reluctance to admit to be the same. If they were created


4 P

capable of a more elevated range in in- angels, that their punishment is the tellectual and moral attainments than same : indeed, many of the goats were human beings, they must of course be themselves the angels of Diabolos, or the proportionably more culpable in the ne- Roman civil power. But, it leing the glect and abandonment of them than punishment of human beings and for a human beings can be. For these super- part of their conduct only, both the rehuman beings, and such beings as are ward and the punishment must be of a included under the term goats, to be temporary nature. The sheep would be consigned to the same degree or kind of protected and preserved amidst the dreadpunishment would, therefore, be manifest ful havoc, devastation and unparalleled injustice. And God, we know, cannot barbarities of these times, while the other be unjust. The pupishment, too, is said two parties, Diabolos and his angels, to consist of fire; can spirits be acted would miserably suffer during these hor. upon by fire? Does fire appear to be a rible conflicts."—Pp. 125–129. punishment equally congenial to such

The Lecturer seems to be fully heaven-born spirits and to mortals ? “ There is another consideration which

aware that his explanation of the apstrongly militates against the opinion of pellation Devil, in John vii. 4-1, (the our Lord's referring in this passage to

text of the VIIth Lect.,) as referring the day of general judgment or retribu- to the Sanhedrim, will appear harsh tion. It is not the general conduct of to his hearers, and therefore he takes the whole lives of the sheep, which is the great pains in its vindication. How object of reward in the parable. The far he has been successful, we will not reward is confined to the exercise of undertake to say; but we acknowthose virtues only, which led them to ledge that there is great weight in succour, to relieve, and to protect, such some of his critical remarks : e. g. disciples of Christ as they knew to be in sickness or distress, or persecuted. It “ When Jesus, therefore, tells the was, the exercise of particular virtues Pharisees in the text, that Diabolos was towards a particular class of men, and in their father, wbo had been a murderer a particular situation. It was vot the from the beginning, he repeats what he general tenor of their conduct, in all the had said before, that they were seekiug relations and duties of life, which was some plausible pretext for taking his life. then to be the subject of investigation; In doing this, they were the active and it cannot, therefore, include the future faithful spies of their employers, the Jew, general day of judgment or retribution, ish rulers : 'Ye are the willing perpebut refers to a reward for the discharge trators of their machinations, whose of certain specified and peculiar virtues, intention has been murder from the be. arising out of peculiar circumstances. ginning of my ministry among you.' Con. The punishment awarded is considered sidering all the malicious lies which these only as that of certain specified parts of Pharisees propagated concerning him, as their conduct who were to be punished. originating with the Jewish rulers, as a They had neglected to practise certain body, he here calls them liars, and beson virtues, which they ought to have prac- tates not to declare his belief that they tised towards those of their own vation ; were the father of them, agreeably to they had wilfully omitted certain duties the sense in which the term father is which, as men and as fellow-worshipers frequently used in the Hebrew Scriptures, of the same God, they ought to have Thus Jabal, who projected the plau of exercised towards their country-men; having moveable dwellings, for the greater and for this part of their conduct and no convenience of attending their flocks, is other was their punishment assigned to called the father of such as live in teuts, them. This punishment was to be the (Gen. iv. 20.) His brother Jubal, who same as had beeu prepared for Diabolos was the inventor of string and wind muand his angels : this Diabolos and his' sical instruments, is called the father of messengers, therefore, must bave been the harp and the organ (ver. 21). Joguilty of similar crimes, or else their pu. seph, (chap. xlv. 8,) who by bis judicious nishment would not have been similar. administration of the gorerument of Diabolos, the common adversary of the Egypt, had raised it to great prosperity, Jews and Christians, had greatly perse. tells his brothers that God had made him cuted and oppressed the latter, through a father to Pharaoh. Job, who kuew the the instrumentality of his angels, who value and blessing of rain and dew, speaks were continually seeking them as objects of God as the father of them. (Chap. of their fury and hatred. The conduct xxxyiii. 28.) And Huram is called the of the goats towards the Christians, for father of Hiram, king of Tyre, (2 Chron. this is the specified point of offence, is ü. 13,) because he was the best workman, BO similar to that of Diabolos and his in his dominions, in brass and copper, Review.- Scott's Lectures on the Devil.

659 This same person is also called the father his father also is a liar.'. The Pharisecs of Solomon, (chap. iv. 16,) because the in conjunction with their rulers, were the king of Tyre sent him to Solomon, to determined opposers, from the beginning, fabricate for him, in those branches, the of Christ and his doctrine ; and they vessels and ornamental parts of the Tem would not believc him, although he so ple. Thus, the Sanhedrin was the father repeatedly declared that he told them the the fabricator of all the inalicious truth, and the truth from God, appealing talsehoods circulated concerning Jesus ; to the testimony which God bore to him the father-the source of all the opposi- by the miracles which he enabled him to tion which had been made to the truth. performn."-Pp. 145–147. When auy of the Pharisees uttered these lies, Jesus tells then, they ouly spoke in

The VIIIth Lect. is upon the use of character, as closely connected with the the word Devil in the Epistles; the rulers, the father and origin of all: following is the scheme of interpreta, • When any one speaketh a lie, he speak- tion here adopted : eth according to his own kindred; for

“ This term is used eight times by Paul :
Ephes. iv. 27, where it implies a slanderer.
vi. 11,

I Tim. iii. 6, 7,

evil speakers. 11,

slanderers. 2 Tim, ii. 26,

accuser. -ji. 3,

false accusers. Titus ii. 3,

false accusers.
Heb. ii. 14,

James iv. 7,

pride and revenge.
1 Peter v. 8,

false accusers.
1 John iii. 8, 10, where it is used synonymously with sin.
Jude 9, an opponent to an archangel."-P. 178. Note.

We think our author peculiarly un- the Jewish Sanhedrim acting under happy in his exposition of Heb. ii. the sanction of the Roman Govern14. « Heathenism” might by a per- ment. Paul is said to refer, in Ephes. sonification be styled the Devil, the i. 2, under the phrase " Prince of Accuser or Tempter; but in what the power of the air," to some fanci. sense could Heathenism be said to ful being in the theory of the Gnoshave

" the power of death”? A tics, against whom he is writing; writer to the Hebrews was not likely and in 2 Cor. iv. 4, under the phrase to expatiate upon the deliverance of “ God of this world,” or age, to the the Gentiles from their bondage and idolatry of the Heathens. We quote fear, and verse 16th of the chapter at length the remarks upon some expressly confines his reasoning to other supposed appellatives of the " the seed of Abraham." There is Evil Spirit in the Apocalypse : evidence in the passage itself that

“ The eleventh verse of the ninth the Devil, as he is cominonly con- chapter of the book of the Revelatious," ceived, is not and cannot be intended ;

(Revelation) is said to be prolific in its this Mr. Scott satisfaetorily shews :

supply of names for the Devil, having no but the whole and true sense does less than three; the Angel of the botnot appear to us to have been yet tomless pit,'• Abaddon,' and • Apollyon.! discovered. Can the writer mean by John does not say the pit is bottomless ; the accuser, who had the power of be calls it'the pit of deepness,' as Wickdeath, the Law, agreeably to John liff translates the word abuose. The pit V. 45, and Rom. vi. 13 and 20? or is on the earth, since the star, or mesdoes he refer to some Jewish hypo- senger of heaven, came to the earth, and thesis or fable which is not pre- lt could not be hell, as its inhabitants

had the key given him to open this pit. served ? Lect. IX. einbraces the explana.

are said to be confined there in adation of other expressions in the New mantive chains, whereas these were let

out for five months. The inhabitants of Testament besides the Devil and Satan this visionary pit were the enemies of the which are supposed to refer to a gospel, and are represented under the mighty evil Spirit. “ The Prince of this world," in Joho xii. 3), (the text of this Lecture,) is explained of

. Wakefield's translation.

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