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gium upon him in his funeral sermon; and especially that he was for years the confidential friend of Dr. Lardner. The

list of his publications is enough to prove both the impartiality and the activity of his mind. His theological system was of his own framing from the Scriptures. He was the zealous advocate of revealed religion, of Protestantism, of nonconformity, and of some doctrines which are accounted orthodox, such as the immortality of the soul, the sanctity of the Sabbath, and the liberty of the will. His Unitarianism only was against him. But for that, the present historian, who reports the opinion and feeling of a large body of theologians, would not have termed his "specimens of divinity” “ wretched," or his interpretations of Scripture perverse; nor would he in a virtual comparison of him with "Mr. John Dove, a member of Mr. Pike's congregation," who was known by the name of "The Hebrew Tailor," have given the seeming preference to that fearned artificer. Mr. Wilson has, however, made some amends to Dr. Fleming, by inserting in his work a handsome engraving of him, from a Portrait in Dr. Williams's library, and a full and tolerably correct list of his publications. The number in this list is sixty, and there are several in our possession not included.

A life of Dr. Fleming was looked for at the hands of the late Dr. Towers, who came into possession of his papers, including, according to Dr. Kippis (Life of Lardner, p. xcvi.), "a series of letters written to Dr. Fleming by Dr. Lardner, in which he freely disclosed his thoughts concerning men and things." Why will not the representative of Dr. Towers, who is so capable of doing justice to the characters of the friends of truth and freedon, gratify our wishes? If he had not considered this gentleman as the proper biographer of Dr. Fleming, the late Dr. Toulinin would have communicated a memoir of this decided, intrepid, zealous and laborious Unitarian teacher, to the Monthly Repository. Notices of him are scattered through this work [III. 485-487. IV. 151. VI.44. VIII. 339. X. 283], which we refer to in the hope that they may excite suitable attention to a neglected character. It is right to add that should a complete memoir of Dr. Fleming be prepared for the press, the compiler will find. Mr. Wilson's

account, with all its faults, of no small use.

In a History of Dissenting Churches we did not expect an account of a fanatical Deist who delivered lectures at Carpenters' Hall [11. 290, 292]. This was Jacob Ilive, a printer and letter-founder. He published several pamphlets, for one of which "Remarks on the Bishop of London's (Dr. Sherlock's) Discourses" he was imprisoned in Clerkenwell Bridewe! two years. During his confinement he appears to have written "The Book of Jasher,” which he procured to be privately printed, and which purported to be a translation from the original of Alcuin, a British monk. It is a small folio. live died in the year 1763. There is an account of him in Gough's British Topography, 1. 637.

The Old Jewry is rich in Dissenting biography, having been always celebrated for the number and respectability of its congregation and the eminence of its ministers. At the beginning of this article, the historian notes down, what from the specimens lately given the reader might not have observed, that "the words Calvinist and Arian he uses as terms neither of honour nor reproach, but for the sake of convenience" (11. 305).

We cannot even enumerate all the ministers that as pastors, assistants or lecturers have rendered the Old Jewry so distinguished a Dissenting station, but must content ourselves with a few notices and remarks.

Mr. Wilson relates a "very striking anecdote" (11. 322-326), of John Rogers, one of the Bartholomew confessors, and father of Timothy Ro gers, minister at the Old Jewry. The anecdote is, in substance, that Mr. Rogers was on the point of being sent to jail for his Nonconformity, by Sir Richard Cradock, a persecuting Justice of the Peace, but was delivered by Sir Richard's grand-daughter, a headstrong girl of six or seven years of age, who took a liking to the Puritan preacher and threatened to drown herself if he were ill-used. Mr. Timothy Rogers once related this story at the house of a Mrs. Tooley, where he was dining in company with Mr. T. Bradbury; when the hostess revealed that she was the grand-daughter of Sir R. Cradock, and the person to whom the story referred. Her guests were anxious to learn her religious history,

and she proceeded to narrate by what means she had been converted; these were the artifices of a religious apothecary who laid her under an involuntary obligation to read the New Testament, and a dream eventually realized in a Sermon from Mr. Shower at the Old Jewry.


The story is striking" enough, and may also be true; but Mr. Wilson has omitted his authority for relating it. We read it in our boyish days in the Spiritual Magazine, the wrapper of which was rendered awful in our eyes by the head of John Calvin, in a wood-cut. It is in the Number for March, 1784, and is thus headed, with an appearance of authority, "The substance of a letter from Mr. Davidson, of Braintree, to Mr. Archibald Wallace, Merchant, in Edinburgh, dated 12th Oct. 1767."

A very interesting account is given, (II. 338-358,) of Simon Browne, whose peculiar malady has procured him a degree of fame which his talents and virtues, though great, would not alone have obtained. Dr. Hawkesworth has described the case with all

his usual fascination of style in No. 88, of the Adventurer. Browne imagined that Almighty God had annihilated his thinking substance; yet whilst he was under this melancholy delusion he composed works which discovered remarkable strength and acuteness of mind. There are various accounts of

the origin of his disorder. Dr. Pereival suggests [Works, 11. 80.] that it might be owing to his study of the Platonic writers, who represent the most perfect worship of the Deity as consisting in self-annihilation.

and, as I think, with very good reason,
that it is an infringement of Christian li
berty, to use compulsive methods, to oblige
men to do even what they take not to be
sinful, or to subscribe all that they believe:
forasmuch as this is confining where God
has left at liberty, and making necessary
what he has left indifferent.'—' How hap
py had it been for the church and world, if
this method of subscribing, had never

come into the mind of men, more than into
the mind of God! If, as that holy man,
Mr. Baxter, expresses it, the devil had
never put on his gown, stept into the in-
fallible chair and in a fit of reverend zeal,
taken upon him to preserve and perfect the
faith of the church! This was opening
Pandora's box. Had not Satan turned
orthodox, and tempted Christian ministers
to make, and mend, and enlarge creeds,
and prevent and cure heresy by subscrip
tion, to their own terms and forms, peace
and truth had been much better preserved
than they have been, or ever will be, till
the engine of the devil, as that wise and
good man called it, be overthrown.”-
II. 340, 341.

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Browne's publications were numerous. He was one of the authors of "The Occasional Papers," and also ators; the part assigned to him was one of Matthew Henry's Continuthe first Epistle to the Corinthians.

The life of Chandler must occupy a large space in any history not merely of the Old Jewry but likewise of the Dissenters. His fame as a preacher has not yet died away; and his writings will be ever valued by the biblical student. He possessed extensive and correct learning, a penetrating and comprehensive intellect and a sound judgment. The memoir of him, which is here given, is creditable to Mr. Wilson's liberality. The following notice may be useful to future translators and commentators on the Scriptures:

It is recorded to the honour of Simon Browne that he was one of the non-subscribing ministers at the Salters' Hall synod. He appeared before the public and encountered present reproach as their advocate. Mr. Wilson has furnished us with two admirable extracts from his pamphlet on that occasion:

"Upon the subject of subscribing he expresses himself thus: For my own part, I always took it, that subscriptions of all kinds, whether to liturgies or articles, had been a grievance to our fathers, as well as to us; though rather than be rendered utterly incapable of public usefulness, they and we have submitted to the hardship, and subscribed to some of the 39 articles. But there are many that judge,

"Dr. Chandler left in his interleaved

bible, a large number of critical notes, chiefly in Latin. They are drawn up in the manner of Raphelius, Bos, Elsner, and other writers of the like kind. Those on the Old Testament are thinly scattered, excepting in a few particular places. But those on the New Testament are very copious and display a close study of the Holy Scriptures, and an extensive acquaintance with ancient authors. They were purchased for a small consideration by Dr. Amory, Mr. Farmer, Dr. Furneaux, Dr. Price, Dr. Savage, and Dr. Kippis, with an intention of committing them to the press, if any bookseller could be found

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ی روز

who would be willing to run the risk of of describing this and kindred parties;
publication. But it was not judged that but we would remind him that no-
tlic taste of the age would afford sufficient thing can absolve a Christian from
encouragement for the prosecation of the the duties of truth and justice and
design. Dr. Furneaux employed such candour; that any appearance of arti-
labour upon the manuscript ; baving tranfice or unfairness towards such as
scribed some of the nutes, and examined throw out large accusations against
the anthorities on which they are founded their fellow Christians, only confirms
Dr. Kippis, the last surviving proprietor, them in their surmises and ill-will ;
deposited the work iu Dr. Williams's Li-
brary, Redcross-street. It is in the quarte and that, in reality, the filtest objects
form, very fairly written, and the Hebrew of fair-dealing and charity are those
in particular, remarkably correct and beau- that know not how to contend with-
tiful."-II. 382.

oul animosity or to differ without re

sentment. The article “ Free-Thinkers" (II. 523) savours of bigotry. The people Art. III.-A Faithful Enquiry after referred to denominate themselves

the Antient and Original Doctrine of Free-Thinking Christians." Whats

the Trinity, taught by Christ and his ever be thought of the name, whether

Apostles. By Isaac Watts, B. D. it be considered impolilie, or guaint,

1745. 8vo. Pp. 56. Eatou. 1816. or arrogant; or, in the present instance,

R. WATTS's last sentimients misapplied, it is the appellation of the DR.

have been frequently and fully party, and as such ought to be adopted discussed in our pages (VIII. 683, by their historian. * Free-thinkers" 714, 715—723, 768–770); and it is is, Mr. Wilson knows, synonimous, we think quite clear that he died in in common acceptation, with Sceptics the disbelief of the Trinity. The tract or Unbelievers; and for that reason, before us is a record by his own pen probably, he uses the term, for he of his misgivings

, doubts and inquisays, somewhat unintelligibly, “ they ries. It was printed in 1745, but meet to discuss suljects, connected in- carefully suppressed. One copy aq deed with theology, but intended to least escaped and fell into the hands undermine the doctrines of revelation, of the Rev. Gabriel Watts, of Frome, and erect sceptical indifferrnop upon who re-published it in the year 1802, the ruins of the Christian faith.” This with a Preface explaining the inanner is sitting in judgment upon men's in which it came into his possession. motives, and pronouncing sentence. The edition had been tong out of upon them not according to their print, and therefore the presem Ediprofessions or actions, but according to for has, with the leave of the former' the censor's suspicion or ill-nature. Editor, issued a third impression. The “ Free-thinking Christians" al

Dr. Watts's Solenin Address to the ways declared themselves believers in Trinitg is prefixed; a striking monuDivine Revelation, and since Mt. ment of the distracting tendency of Wilson wrote this part of the history, the doctrine upon an intelligent and! they have published a very valuable

conscientious nrind. pamphlet on the Evidences of Christ

This liale publication is better sanity, (See Mon. Repos. X. 515.) adapted than any other with which Unfortunately for Mr. Wilson, he re

we are acquainted to dissolve that collected that this little party met in persaasion of infallibility which pre contiguous to that in which fails amongst Trinitarians, and which another party still less, the Haldanites, renders them inaccessible to arguwere accustomed to meet, and called

ment; and on this ground we' ear. to mind some lines of De Foe's, and nestly recommend its distribution, was unable to resist the temptation to luogh, though at the expence of cha-- Art. IV. - Ileresies Considered, in rity: he assails the “ Free-thinking

Connexion with the Chardeter of the Christians," with these couplets ;

Approred. A Sermoni, preached at *** Whereyer God erects-a House of Prayer, the Opening of the Unitarian Cha. The Devil always builds a chapel there; pel, in Thorne, on Friday, 28th of And 'twill be found, upon examination, June,_1816. By Nathaniel Phi. The latter has the largest congregation." lipps, D. 1). 8vo, pp40. Hunter. We are aware of the defence which

ERESY was once a stinging

term, but Unitarians have ren. VOL, XI.

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dered it innoxious, as children are taught to make nettles, by bold and forcible handling. It is now retorted and will probably hereafter fix alone on those that make separation in the church by imposing unscriptural and unwarrantable terms of communion.

Dr. Philipps's text is 1 Cor. xi. 19; He first states the proper meaning and use of the term Heresy; 2ndly explains the reason and scope of the expression," Heresies must be;" and 3rdly shews the effect of Heresies upon virtuous and independent minds, and the ultimate good, which such corruptions and abuses, (though a great evil in themselves) by the firm and excellent example of those who expose and reject them, may be made the means of producing.

The following argument on the Unity of the Divine nature and per

son is well stated and is unanswerable.

Translation of some Latin Lines of Jortin's.




YOU are no doubt acquainted with the beautiful Latin lines of Jortin, in which a very striking contrast is drawn between the renovations of nature, and the hopeless dissolution of man. They are given in a note to Mr. John Kenrick's eloquent sermon, "On the Necessity of Revelation to teach the Doctrine of a Future Life." I here send you an attempt at a translation of those lines, which, if they meet your approbation, you are at liberty to insert them in your valuable Repository.

The radiant sun, bright regent of the day,
Pursues a fix'd, undeviating way;
To night you trace his beaming chariot's


Roll slowly down the purple western hills: To morrow he shall climb the eastern sky, And all the world his rising beams descry. The silver moon, mild empress of the night, Changes her form, and oft withdraws her light,

Yet beams again within the evʼning sky, And sheds a milder radiance from her eye:


"The general and popular creed, which maintains that God exists in three Persons, combining three intelligent minds, each of which is perfectly God, distinctly and alone, while yet the three united constitute but one Deity, appears

to us to teach a palpable contradiction; because an omnipresent spirit and a perfect mind cannot be divided—because a

whole cannot be a part, nor a part equal to the whole. To divide is to destroy. Who can divide a thought? or the intellectual principle which is the parent of that thought? Various as are the powers of mind, the existence of mind is identified with its unity.”—P. 24.

In an Appendix, Dr. Philipps re lates the rise and progress of Unitarianisin at Thorne; which exhibits another of those cases, now becoming numerous, in which plain men with the help only of their Bibles discover the error of the popular creed and worship.

The beauteous stars, when morning brings the day, Fainter and fainter shine-then fade away:

But night draws out her beaming hosts

once more,

Which shine as bright and splendid as


Earth's lowly children, herbs which drink

the show'rs, And all the fragile race of colour'd flow'rs, That give their beauty to the verdant vales,

And shed their fragrance on the summer gales;

The cruel blasts of winter sweep away,
And wither all their blossoms in a day.
But spring returns-on every naked plain
At Zephyr's call the flow'rs resume their
The living verdure spreads its hues again,


And rise more fragrant from their wint'ry


But man! the vaunted lord of all below, On whom the Gods their choicest gifts be


Vain man! who boasts of reason's purest ·


And seems in thought to tread the realms . of day;

Alas! when his short spring of life is o'er, Fades like the grass, and dies for ever


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No second spring revives his mould'ring frame,

It mingles with the dust from which it



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Is such, my soul, thy melancholy fate?
Most wretched then is man's exalted state!
Rais'd 'bove the brutes his misery to know,
'And pine in vain for happiness below.
O child of woe! thy wisdom is a curse,
Reflection makes thy sad condition worse.
The beast that wanders o'er the flow'ry

And thoughtless bites the grass or snuffs the gale;

The bird that o'er the plains extends its wings,

Or careless on the bush delighted sings; The bee that wanders still from flow'r to flow'r,

And joyful hums within the fragrant

Is happier far than man in all his bloom,
If death awaits him in the silent tomb :
That fate once known his happiness de-
And threat'ning death blasts all his earthly

In vain the cheerful seasons round him

And playful wanton o'er the fields awhile;
In vain the spring on winged zephyr flies,
And paints the landscape with her verdant

In vain hot summer flings his golden


On waving harvests and on glitt’ring streams;

In vain the heav'ns with brightest colours glow,

And on the earth's fair bosom sweetest roses blow;

In vain the charms of nature court his

What are they all to him, if he must die?
Was man then made the lord of reason's


Yet prompting nature cannot sure deceive.
Who does not feel within his breast arise
Hopes that aspire and look beyond the

Who to the sky where'er his footsteps


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Does not look up as to his native home? But lo! the sage of wisdom's words possess'd,

Confirms the hope in ev'ry human breast, Whilst round his form the list'ning throng attend,

And on his beaming face their eyelids bend;


Inspir'd by heav'n he lifts his hand on high,
And promises the good a home within the
Oh! kind Instructor, still be thou my

May sophistry ne'er draw me from thy

side :

Support me when the vale of death I tread,
And mingle with the shadows of the dead.
Then 'midst the gloom bid nobler prospects

And burst with glory on my longing eyes ;
Beyond the tomb reveal the glorious way,
That leads to realms of everlasting day.
J. B. M.


From the Portuguese of Ferreira. Pilgrim of untired spirit! who dost tread Ünerring, unappalled, life's wearying road,

And seest the brightness of the throne of GOD

Its smiles of invitation o'er thee shed::

I wake, dear traveller! from my slothful


(Veil'd from my eyes till now)—The hours are fled,

When sad and solitary,-woe-begone Midst rain desires, and heart-consuming cares,

I saw the stream of my existence roll;

More wretched than, the beasts to pine Now comfort beams upon th' awakened away?


Was he created in the form of God,
To lose that form beneath the mould'ring

Were all the faculties bestow'd in vain,
Or but to aggravate his mortal pain?
This faith let sceptics preach, who will be-


To follow where thy holier feet have trod,

Thro' paths that lead to heav'ns sublime abode,

And, full of joy, my liberated soul, Recalls (but to forget) life's wasted



From the Portugueze.
Every promise of hope is gone-
Joy is interred in the grave beneath;
Life, unenvied lingers on-

And there's nought but solitude in death.

O this world is a world of wee,—

Shunned by peace and slighted by love; And darkness reigns like a tyrant below ;Say is there brightness or bliss above? A.

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