Imatges de pÓgina
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not indeed fear anything from the child as they do in the idea that Rachel weep-
of obscure and poor parents, residing in ing for the Benjamites at Ramah has no
a petty village ; but that labouring at reference whatever to the massacre of the
that time under the disorder of which he innocents by Herod.
at length died, his blood might have be- They dare even to urge, that these two
come so corrupt, that he might in conse- allusions being clearly false, are a mani-
quence have lost both reason and hu- fest proof of the falsehood of this narra-
manity ; that, in short, all these incom- tive, and conclude, that the massacre of
prehensible events, which prepared the the children, and the new star, and the
way for mysteries still more incompre- journey of the three kings, never had the
hensible, were directed by an inscrutable slightest foundation in fact.

They even go much further yet; they It is objected, that the historian Jose- } think they find as palpable a contradicphus, who was nearly contemporary, |tion between the narrative of St. Maiand who has related all the crueities of thew and that of St. Luke, as between Herod, has made no more mention of the the two genealogies adduced by them. massacre of the young children than of St. Matthew says that Joseph and Mary the star of the three kings; that neither | carried Jesus into Egypt, fearing that he the Jew Philo, nor any other Jew, nor

would be involved in the massacre. St. any Roman, takes any notice of it; and | Luke, on the contrary, says, “ That after even that three of the evangelists have having fulfilled all the ceremonies of the observed a profound silence upon these law, Joseph and Mary returned to Naimportant subjects. It is replied, that zareth their city, and went every year to they are nevertheless announced by St. Jerusalem, to keep the Passover." Matthew, and that the testimony of one But thirty days must have expired beinspired man is of more weight than the fore a woman could have completed her silence of all the world.

purification from childbirth and fulfilled The critics, however, have not sur- all the ceremonies of the law. During rendered; they have dared to censure St. | these thirty days, therefore, the child Matthew himself, for saying that these must have been exposed to destruction children were massacred, “that the by the general proscription. And if his words of Jeremiah might be fulfilled. A parents went to Jerusalem to accomplish voice is heard in Ramah, a voice of the ordinances of the law, they certainly groaning and lamentation. Rachel { did not go to Egypt. weeping for her children, and refusing These are the principal objections of to be comforted, because they are no unbelievers. They are effectually remore.'

futed by the faith both of the Greek and These historical words, they observe, Latin churches. If it were necessary were literally fulfilled in the tribe of Ben- always to be clearing up the doubts of jamin, which descended from Rachel, persons who read the scriptures, we must when Nabuzaradan destroyed a part of inevitably pass our whole lives in disthat tribe near the city of Ramah. It puting about all the articles contained in was no longer a prediction, they say, any them. Let us rather refer ourselves to more than were the words, “ He shall be our worthy superiors and masters ; to called a Nazarene. And he came to the university of Salamanca when in dwell in a city called Nazareth, that it Spain, to the Scrbonne in France, and to might be fulfilled which was spoken by the holy congregation at Rome. Let us the prophets. He shall be called a Na- submit both in heart and in understandzarene. They triumph in the circum- ing to that which is required of us for our stance, that these words are not to be good. found in any one of the prophets; just



fort took the city of Beziers by assault, and put all the inhabitants to the sword;

and at Laval, four hundred Albigenses The inquisition is an ecclesiastical were burnt at once.“ In all the histojurisdiction, established by the see of ries of the inquisition that I ever read," Rome in Italy, Spain, Portugal, and says Paramo, “ I never met with an act even in the Indies, for the purpose of of faith so eminent, or a spectacle so sosearching out and extirpating infidels, lemn. At the village of Cazera, sixty Jews, and heretics.

were burnt ; and in another place a hunThat we may not be suspected of re-dred and eighty." sorting to falsehood, in order to render The inquisition was adopted by the this tribunal odious, we shall in this pre- Count of Thoulouse in 1229, and consent article give the abstract of a Latin fided to the Dominicans by Pope Grework on the “ Origin and Progress of the gory IX. in 1233; Innocent IV. in 1251, Office of the Holy Inquisition,” printed established it in the whole of Italy, with by the royal press at Madrid in 1589, by the exception of Naples. At the comorder of Louis de Paramo, Inquisitor in mencement, indeed, heretics were not the kingdom of Sicily.

subjected in the Milanese to the punishWithout going back to the origin of ment of death, which they nevertheless so the inquisition, which Paramo thinks he richly deserved, because the popes were discovers in the manner in which God is not sufficiently respected by the emperor related to have proceeded against Adam Frederick, to whom that state belonged : and Eve, let us abide by the new law, of} but a short time afterwards, heretics were which Jesus Christ, according to him,} burnt at Milan, as well as in the other was the chief inquisitor. He exercised parts of Italy; and our author remarks, the functions of that office on the thir- that in 1315 some thousands of heretics teenth day after his birth, by announcing} having spread themselves through Creto the city of Jerusalem, through the masco, a small territory included in the three kings or magi, his appearance in jurisdiction of the Milanese, the Domithe world, and afterwards by causing nican brothers burnt the greater part of Herod to be devoured alive by worms; them; and thus checked the ravages by driving the buyers and sellers out of of the theological pestilence by the the temple; and finally, by delivering flames. Judea into the hands of tyrants, who As the first canon of the council of pillaged it in punishment of its unbe- } Thoulouse enjoined the bishops to aplief.

point in every parish a priest and two or After Jesus Christ, St. Peter, St. Paul, three laymen of reputation, who should and the rest of the apostles, exercised the be bound by oath to search carefully and office of inquisitor, which they trans- frequently for heretics, in houses, caves, mitted to the popes and bishops, their and all places wherever they might be successors. St. Dominic having arrived able to hide themselves, and to give the in France with the Bishop of Osma, of} speediest information to the bishop, the which he was archdeacon, became ani- seigneur of the place, or his bailiff, after mated with zeal against the Albigenses, having taken all necessary preparaand obtained the regard and favour of tions against the escape of any heretics Simon, Count de Montfort. Having discovered, the inquisitors must have been appointed by the pope inquisitor in { acted at this time in concert with the Languedoc, he there founded his order, bishops. The prisons of the bishop and which was approved of and ratified in of the inquisition were frequently the 1216, by Honorius III. Under the same ; and, although in the course of the auspices of St. Madelaine, Count Mont- procedure the inquisitor might act in his



own name, he could not, without the in- constrained to embrace the faith of Jesus
tervention of the bishop, apply the tor- Christ, and that these violences are a dis-
ture, pronounce any definitive sentence, grace to our religion.
or condemn to perpetual imprisonment, But these arguments are very weak;

The frequent disputes that oc- and I contend, says Paramo, that the curred between the bishops and the in- edict is pious, just, and praiseworthy, as quisitors, on the limits of their autho- the violence with wbich the Jews are rerity, on the spoils of the condemned, &c. quired to be converted is not an absolute compelled Pope Sixtus IV. in 1473, to but a conditional violence, since they make the inquisitions independent and might avoid it by quitting their country. separate from the tribunals of the bishops. Besides, they might corrupt those of the Hecreated for Spain an inquisitor-general, | Jews who were newly converted, and with full powers to nominate particular even Christians themselves ; but, as St. inquisitors; and Ferdinand V. in 1478, } Paul says, what communion is there befounded and endowed the inquisition. tween justice and iniquity, light and

At the solicitation of Turrecremata (or darkness, Jesus Christ and Belial ? Torquemada) a brother of the Domini- With respect to the confiscation of can order, and grand-inquisitor of Spain, their goods, nothing could be more equitthe same Ferdinand, who was surnamed able, as they had acquired them only by the Catholic, banished from his kingdom usury towards Christians, who only reall the Jews, allowing them three monthsceived back, therefore, what was in fact from the publication of his edict, after their own. the expiration of which period they were In short, by the death of our Lord, not to be found in any of the Spanish the Jews became slaves, and everything dominions under the pain of death. } that a slave possesses belongs to his masThey were permitted, on quitting the į ter. We could not but suspend our kingdom, to take with them the goods { narrative for a moment, to make these reand merchandize which they had pur- | marks, in opposition to persons who chased, but forbidden to take out of it { have thus calumniated the piety, the any description of gold or silver. spotless justice, and the sanctity of the

The brother Turrecremata followed up catholic king. and strengthened this edict, in the dio- At Seville, where an example of sevecese of Toledo, by prohibiting all Chris-rity to the Jews was ardently desired, it tians, under pain of excommunication, was the holy will of God, who knows from giving anything whatever to the how to draw good out of evil, that a Jews, even that which might be necessary young man who was in waiting in consepreserve life itself.

quence of an assignation, should see In consequence of these decrees, about through the chinks of a partition an asa million Jews departed from Catalonia, sembly of Jews, and in consequence inthe kingdom of Arragon, that of Valen- { form against them. A great number of cia, and other countries subject to the the unhappy wretches were apprehended, dominion of Ferdinand; the greater part and punished as they deserved. By virof whom perished miserably : so that { tue of different edicts of the kings of they compare the calamities that they Spain, and of the inquisitors, general and suffered during this period to those they particular, established in that kingdom, experienced under Titus and Vespasian. there were, in a very short time, about This expulsion of the Jews gave incredi- two thousand heretics burnt at Seville, ble joy to all Catholic sovereigns. and more than four thousand from 1482

Some divines blamed these edicts of to 1520. A vast number of others were the King of Spain ; their principal rea- condemned to perpetual imprisonment, sons are, that unbelievers ought not to be or exposed to inflictions of different des


seriptions. The emigration from it was { dextrous impostor, whom God made use so great, that five hundred houses were of as an instrument for accomplishing the supposed to be left in consequence quite good work. In fact, the wicked are empty, and in the whole diocese, three frequently useful instruments in God's thousand, and altogether more than a hands, and he does not reject the good hundred thousand heretics were put to they bring about. Thus, when John redeath, or punished in some other man- marks to our Lord Jesus Christ, “ Lord, ner, or went into banishment, to avoid we saw one who was not thy disciple severer suffering. Such was the destruc- casting out demons in thy name, and we tion of heretics accomplished by these prevented him from doing so,” Jesus pious brethren.

answered him, “ Prevent him not; for The establishment of the inquisition at he who works miracles in my name will Toledo was a fruitful source of revenue not speak ill of me; and he who is not to the Catholic church. In the short against me is for me." space of two years, it actually burnt at Paramo relates, afterwards, that he saw the stake fifty-two obstinate heretics, and in the library of St. Laurence, at the Estwo hundred and twenty more were out- curial, a manuscript in the hand-writing lawed; whence we may easily conjecture of Saavedra, in which that knave details of what utility the inquisition has been his fabrication of a false bull, and obtainfrom its original establishment, since in ing thereby his entrée into Seville as leso short a period it performed such won- gate, with a train of a hundred and twenty ders.

domestics; his defrauding of thirteen From the beginning of the fifteenth thousand ducats the heirs of a rich noblecentury, Pope Boniface IX. attempted in man in that neighbourhood, during his vain to establish the inquisition in Portu- twenty days’ residence in the palace of the gal, where he created the provincial of archbishop, by producing a counterfeit the Dominicans, Vincent de Lisbon, in- bond for the same sum, which the noblequisitor-general. Innocent VII., some man acknowledged, in that instrument, years after, having named as inquisitor to have borrowed of the legate when he the Minim Didacus de Sylva, King John visited Rome; and finally, after his arri1. wrote to that pope, that the establish- vai at Badajos, the permission granted ment of the inquisition in his kingdom him by King John III., to whom he was was contrary to the good of his subjects, presented by means of forged letters of to his own interests, and perhaps also to the pope, to establish tribunals of the the interests of religion.

inquisition in the principal cities of the The pope, affected by the representa- kingdom. tions of a too mild and easy monarch, These tribunals began immediately to revoked all the powers granted to the in- exercise their jurisdiction ; and a vast quisitors newly established, and autho- number of condemnations and executions rised Mark, Bishop of Senigaglia, to } of relapsed heretics took place, as also of absolve the persons accused ; which he absolutions of recanting and penitent accordingly did. Those who had been , heretics. Six months had passed in this deprived of their dignities and offices were manner, when the truth was made appare-established in them, and many were rent of that expression in the gospel, delivered from the fear of the confiscation { " There is nothing hid which shall not be of their property.

made known." The Marquis de VilleBut how admirable, continues Paramo, neuve de Barcarotta, a Spanish nobleis the Lord in all bis ways! That which } man, assisted by the governor of Mora, the sovereign pontiffs had been unable had the impostor apprehended and conetfectually to obtain with all their urgency, ducted to Madrid. He was there carried king John granted spontaneously to a before John de Tavera, Archbishop of


Toledo. That prelate, perfectly astonished } and its roots throughout the world,

and at all that now transpired of the knavery produced the most pleasant fruits. and address of the false legate, despatched In order to form some correct idea of all the depositions and documents rela- * the jurisprudence of the inquisition, and tive to the case to Pope Paul III.; as the forms of its proceedings, unknown to he did also the acts of the inquisitions civil tribunals, let us take a cursory view which Saavedra had established, and by of the “Directory of Inquisitors," which which it appeared that a great number of | Nicolas Eymeric, grand inquisitor of the heretics had already been judged and kingdom of Arragon about the middle of condemned, and that the impostor had the fourteenth century, composed in Latin, extorted from his victims more than three and addressed to his brother inquisitors, hundred thousand ducats.

in virtue of the authority of his office. The pope could not help acknowledg- A short time after the invention of ing in all this the finger of God and a } printing, an edition of this work was miracle of his providence; he accordingly printed at Barcelona, and soon conveyed formed the congregation of the tribunal } to all the inquisitions in the Christian of the inquisition, under the denomina- world. A second edition appeared at tion of “ The Holy Office,” in 1545, and Rome in 1578, in folio, with scholia and Sixtus V. confirmed it in 1588.

commentaries by Francois Pegna, doctor
All writers but one agree with Paramo in theology and canonist.
on the subject of the establishment of the The following eulogium on the work is

inquisition in Portugal. Antoine de given by the editor in an epistle dedica-
· Sousa alone, in his “ Aphorisms of In- } tory to Gregory XIII. :-“While Chris-
quisitors," calls the history of Saavedra tian princes are everywhere engaged in
in question, under the pretence that he combatting with arms the enemies of the
may very easily be conceived to have ac- Catholic religion, and pouring out the
cused himself without being in fact guilty, } blood of their soldiers, to support the
in consideration of the glory which would unity of the church and the authority of
redound to him from the event, and in the apostolic see, there are also zealous
the hope of living in the memory of man- and devoted writers, who toil in obscu-
kind. But Sousa, in the very narrative }rity, either to refute the opinions of inno-
which he substitutes for that of Paramo, vators or to arm and direct the power of
exposes himself to the suspicion of bad | the laws against their persons, in order
faith, in citing two bulls of Paul III. and } that the severity of punishments, and the
two others from the same pope to Cardi- solemnity and torture attending execu-
nal Henry, the king's brother; bulls which tions, keeping them within the bounds of
Sousa has not introduced into his printed { duty, may produce that effect upon them
work, and which are not to be found in } which cannot be produced in them by the
any collection of apostolical bulls extant; love of virtue.
two decisive reasons for rejecting his opi- “Although I fill only the lowest place
nion, and adhering to that of Paramo, among these defenders of religion, I am
Hiescas, Salasar, Mendoça, Fernandez, nevertheless animated with the same zeal
and Placentinus, &c.

for repressing the impious audacity and When the Spaniards passed over to horrible depravity of the broachers of inAmerica, they carried the inquisition with novation. The labour which I here prethem; the Portuguese introduced it insent to you on the “ Directory of Inquithe Indies, immediately upon its being sitions,” will be a proof of my assertion. established at Lisbon, which led to the This work of Nicolas Eymeric, respectobservation which Louis de Paramo makes } able for its antiquity, contains a summary in his preface, that this flourishing and of the principal articles of faith, and an verdant tree had extended its branches elaborate and methodical code of instruc

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