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1. By bankruptcy.
A decree was soon after passed allowing .. By succession in part or in whole to the freedom of worship, and the cruel law the property of a bankrupt.
of the 4th of September, by which Barthe3. By domestic servitude.
lemy and Carnot, the Directors, several And 4. By a state of judicial interdic- deputies, and a vumber of printers and tion, accusation, or contumacy.
editors, had been condemned to transporta-, In respect to the elections, each com. tion without a previous trial, was remane foall choose a list of candidates equal pealed. Some exceptions were however to one-tenth of its number, ard this tenth made, in respect to Ramel, Pichegru, &c. ball felect a tenth of theinselves. A de On the 26th of December, the thirtyponmental list is alio to be kept, out of seven members of the late legislature, who which the public functionaries of the de- had been at firft sentenced to banishment partment are to be chosen.
to Guiana, and were afterwards placed unThere is a CONSERVATI VE SENATE der the superintendence of the Minister of of eighty members, each of whom shall Police, were set at liberty. Two days be forty years of age at least, and there after this, the Conful announced to the till not be removable during life; on the Conservative Senate, “ That the governa other hand, they are ineligible for any ment had been installed, and that they ether public function whatever. The le- would employ, under every circumstance, gilative power fhall not promulge any all their resources and means to destroy the new laws, until the projects of them all spirit of faction, to create public spirit, and bave been proposed by the Government, to consolidate that constitution which is the communicated to the Tribunate, and de- object of the wishes of the French people." Creed b; the Legillative Body:
On the same day, Bonaparte signified The TRIBUNATE is coniposed of one to General 'Agereau, that he had apbandred members, each of whom shall be pointed him to the important ftation of at leaft seventy-five years of age. A fifth commander in chief of the French army in is to be renewed yearly. It is to discuss Batavia. In the letter written by him on the projects of every new law, and votes this occasion, after stating “ that the glory either the adoption or rejection; it is also of the republic was the fruit of the blood te superintend public affairs, corre& abuses, shed by their comrades,” he desires bim in and ameliorate ail the branches of the ad. all the acts originating from his command, ministration.
to low himself fuperior to “ those miserThe LEGISLATIVE Body is composed able disputes of public assemblies, which of three hundred members, each of whom had for ten years past convulfed France.” fhall be at least thirty years of age; a fifth He concludes with this memorable expresis renewed yearly.
sion: “ Should circumitances compel me The government is confided to Three to carry on the war myself, be afsured that Cossuls, nominated for ten years, and I will not suffer you to remain in Holland, indefinitely re-eligible; the first Consul and that I shall never forget the glorious pobelles certain functions and attributes action of Castaglione." peculiar to himself. He promulges the The first fitting of the Tribunate took lans, nominates and revokes the members place January the firt, under the presia of the council of state, appoints ambassa. dence of Daunou, two thirds of the memdors, military and naval officers, all bers being prelent. Penieres, on this ocjudges, whether civil or criminal, except casion, made a long oration in favour of joices of the peace, and judges of castá- the First Consul, whose moderation he ton: but he ihall not revoke the powers praised, and whole earnest desire he said of the faid jodges.
it was “ to put an end to the cruel war Bonaparte, hazing thus overturned that that has for lo many years desolated Eu., very government which he himself had nut rope.” sly fupported, but sworn to protect, and In the first sitting of the Logifiative Bompoled a constitation which, with. dy, which occurred on the same day, the out feating bira on the throne, confers a members, who had assembled at one o'clock, degree of power nearly bordering on the in the hallformerly occupied by the Coundepotism of the ancient Bourbons, imme- cil of Fire Hundred, nominated Perrin darely neminated the new members, and des Vosges president. Divisions had been metalled the couneil of state. Instead of previously made on each side of the bar for en formes caths of “ hatred to kings," the orators of the Tribunate and the Governa and * hatred of monarchy in France," ment, and the places to be occupied by them
courcil enjoined the subflitution of the were covered with red cloth. On the cir Moving fimple formula : “ I promise to cular altar, in the uniddle
, was placed an be faithful to the constitution."
open book with the following words in replaced by General Brune, out of the Jetters of gold, “ French Republic---Con- conititution, and treated as the enemies of ftitution of the eighth year.
the French people. After some disputes about the oath, and The late change in the government bea few regulations relative to the internal ing considered by the Senate of Hamburg, police, the assembly adjourned until next as a favourable opportunity for obtaining morning, when three counsellors of state forgiveness, it immediately addressed a presented projects of two laws, the first re- long and laboured apology to "the Con. Jative to the intercourse between the va- fuls” relative to Napper Tandy and his afrious public bodies, and the second con- fociates, in which they remark, “that cerning the redemption and alienation of their ruin and utter annihilation would the rents due to the republic, which are have been the inevitable confequence of a now valued at fifteen years purchase, a refusal." tenth payable within three decades, and the
The following note contains the answer remainder in three separate installments,
transmitted : at the end of six, twelve, and eighteen months.
BONAPARTE, First Consul of the Republic, to One of the first acts of power on the part
the Burgomaster's and Senate of the Free and General Bonaparte was, to dispatch an
Imperial City of Hamburg. aide de-camp to the King of Prussia an
Paris, grh Nivole, (8th year.) nouncing the late changes.
WE have received your letter, gentlemen; He also liberated leveral imprisoned
it is no jeftification of your conduct priests and nobles, and exhibited the most
It is by courage and virtue alone that ardent desire to enter into a treaty with the States are preserved; cowardice and vice prove
their ruin. insurgents in the interior ; in consequence
You have violated the laws of hospitality : of which, a suspenfion of hoftilities imme
Such a violation would not have taken place diately ensued; but their terms, from a
among the barbarian hordes of the deiert. consciousness of their own power, were Your fellow citizens will impute it to you, faid to be of an extravagant nature, and as an eternal reproach. hoftilities have ere this, molt probably, re The two unfortunate men will die illurcommenced.
trious; but their blood will be a source of Previously to this event, a proclamation greater evils to their perfecutors than could was issued from " the Consuls of the Re. be brought upon them by a whole army. public to the Inhabitants of the depart
BONAPARTE, First Consul. ments of the West," in which, after stating
H. B. Maret, Secretary, &c. s that an impious war was threatened to he kindled a fecond time," they observe,
But of all the events that have lately oc. that they do not with to employ force until they had first exhausted all the means of curred in France, no one so nearly interests persuafion. They at the same time pro
this country, as the recent attempt, on the mife liberty of worship, and inform them part of the new governinent, to enter into that the destructive laws relative to hor.
a negociation with his Majesty's Ministers.
Here follows the correlpondence, which tages and the forced loan have been repealed. “ The ministers of a God of renders all observations on our part need.
leis. Peace, are called on to promote reconciliation and concord," and they are defired “ to speak to the hearts of the peo MY LORD, ple the language which they have learned I Dispatch, by order of General Bonaparte, in the school of their master."
First Consul of the French Republic, a A decree is annexed to this proclama-. messenger to London; he is the bearer of a tion requiring
letter from the First Conful of the Republic 1. All the insurgents to separate within
to his Majesty the King of England. I rethe space of one decade.
quest you to give the necessary orders, that. 2. To deliver up their arms and can
he may be enabled to deliver it directly into non of every kind, particularly those fur- your own hands. This step, in ittelf, annilhed by England.
nounces the importance of its object.
Accept, my Lord; the assurance of my 3. A complete amnefty for all past of
highest confideration. fences is held out. · And 4. Such of the communes as Thall (Signed)
CH. MAU. TALLEYRAND. persist in rebellion, hall be declared by Paris, ebe gob Nicole, 8th year of be General Hedouville, who has been lately Freneb Republic, (Dec. 25, 1799.)
French Republic-Sovereignty of the People contest for a vain and false glory. He has Liberty-Equality.
had no other view than that of maintaining, Bonaparte, First Conful of the Republic, to against all aggreflion, the rights and happi
his Majesty the King of Great Britain and ness of his subjects. For there he has conIreland.
tended against an unprovoked attack; and for Paris, 5tb Nivoje, 8tb Year of the Republic. the same objects he is fill obliged to contend;
nor can he hope that this neceffity could CALLED by the wishes of the French be removed by entering, at the present monation to occupy the first magistracy of the ment, into negotiation with those whom a, Republic, I think it proper, on entering into fresh revolution has so recently placed in the office, to make a direct communication of it exercise of power in France. Since no real to your Majesty.
advantage can arise from such negotiation to The war, which for eight years has ra- the great and desirable object of general raged the four quarters of the world, must peace, until it shall distinály appear that it be eternal? Are there no means of coming those causes have ceased to operate, whicka. to an understanding?
originally produced the war, and by which it, How can the two most enlightened nations has lince been protracted, and, in more than of Europe, powerful and strong beyond what one instance, renewed. The same lystem, their safety and independence require, sa- to the prevalence of which France jofly crifice to ideas of vain greatness the benefits afcribes all her present miseries, is that which of commerce, internal prosperity, and the has also involved the rest of Europe in a happiness of families? How is it that they long and destructive wirtare, of a nature long do not feel that Peace is of the first necessity, fince unknown to the practice of civilized & well as of the first glory?
nations. These sentiments cannot be foreign to the • For the extension of this fyftem, and for the heart of your Majesty, whu reigns over a free extermination of all establithed Governments, nation, and with the fole view of rendering the refources of France have from year to it happy.
year, and in the midst of the most unparalleled Your Majesty will only see, in this over- distress, been lavished and exhausted. To this ture, my fincere deure to contribute efficaci- indiscriminate spirit of destruction, the Necily, fór a second timne, to a general paci- therlands, the United Provinces, the Swiss fication by a step, speedy, entirely of confi- Cantons, (lis Majesty's ancient friends and dence, and disengaged from those forms allies) have successively been facrificed. Gerwhich neceifary perhaps to disguise the de- many has been ravageu ; Italy, though now pendence of weak states, prove only in those rescued from its invaders, has been made the which are itrong the mutual desire of de- scene of unbounded rapine and anarchy. His ceiving each other.
Majesty lias himself been compelled to mainFrance and England, by the abuse of their tainan'arduous and burthensome context for the strength, may ftill, for a long time,, for the independence and exitence of his kingdoins. frisiortune of all nations, retard the period of Nói have these calamities been confined to their being exhausted.-But I will venture to Europe alone : they have been extended to say, the fate of all civilized nations is attach- the most distant quarters of the world, and, ed to the termination of a war which involves
even to countries fo remote both in situation the whole world.
and interest from the prefent conteit, that the (Signed)
BONAPARTE. very existence of such war was perhaps un
known to those who found themselves sud-'
denly involved in all its horrors. While Downing-ftreet, Jan. 4, 1800. such a system continues to prevail, and while | HAVE received and laid before the King the blood and treasure of a numerous and
the two letters which you have transmit powerful nation can be lavished in its fupted to me; and his Majesty, seeing no reason
port, experience has shewn that no defence, to depart from those forms which have long
but that of open and steady hostility, can be been establithed in Europe, for transacting bu- availing. The moft folemn treaties have fness with Foreign States, has commanded only prepared the way for freih aggreslion ; me, to return in his name the Official An- and it is to a determined rcfiitance alone that fwer which I send you herewith inclosed.
is now due whatever remains in Europe of I have the honour to be, with high confider
stability for property, for perional liberty, fur ation, Sir, your moit obedient, humble ser.
social order, or for the free exercise of rcValt, (Signed)
GRENVILLE. ligion. To the Minister for Foreign Affairs, &c. at Paris.
For the security, therefore, of those essential objects, his Majesty cannot place his re
liance on the mere renewal of general proNOTE.
fellions of pacific dispositions. Such preTHE King has given frequent proofs of his feflions leave been repeatedly held out by al
sincere desire for the re-establishment of those who have succeflively directed the sesecure and permanent tranquillity in Europe. sources of France to the destruction of Europe; He neither is, nus bas been, engaged in any and whom the present rulers have declared to
Dave been all, from the beginning, and uni- of their tranquillity, their constitution, and formly, incapable of maintaining the relations their independence. of amity and peace. -Greatly, indeed, will
GRENVILLE his Majesty rejoice, whenever it shall appear Downing-street, Jan. 4, 1800 that the danger to which liis own dominions and thofe of his allies have been so long exposed, has really ceafel; whenever he ihall be Paris, 24. Nicvcf., 8th year, (Jan. 14, 1800.) tatisfied that the necefity of resistance is at an end ; that, after the experience of so many years of crimes and miseries, better principles have I LOST no time in laying before the First
Consul of the Republic the Official Note, ultimately prevailed in France; and that all
under date of the 14th Nivole, which you the gigantic projects of ambition, and all the transmitted to me; and I am charged to forreftleisichemes of destruction which have endangered the very existence or civil fociety, you will find annexed.
ward the answer, equally official, which have at length been finally relinquished :but the conviction of such a change, how high consideration.
Receive, my Lord, the assurance of my ever agreeable to his Majesty's wishes, can re
(Signed) C. M. TALLEYRAND. kult only from experience, and from the evidence of facts.
To the Minister for Foreign Affairs, ai London. The best and most natural pledge of its reality and permanence would be the reitoration
NOTE. of that line of princes which for so many cen The Official Note, under date of the 14th turies maintained the French nation in pro. Nivose, the 8th year, addressed by the Mifperity at home, and in consideration and re nister of his Britannic Majesty, having been fpect abroad :-uch an event would at once
laid before the First Conful of the French have removed, and will at any time remove, Repulic, he observed with surprise, that it alt objects in the way of negotiation of peace. rested upon an opinion which is not exact, re.. It would confirm to France the unmolested specting the origin and consequences of the enjoyment of its ancient territory'; and it present war. Very far from its being France would give to all the other nations of Europe, which provoked it, he had, it muit be rein tranquility and peace, that security which membered, from the commencement of her they are now compelled to seek by other revolution, solemnly proclaimed her love of
peace, and her disinclination to conquests, But, defirable as such an event must be her respect for the independance of all Goboth to France and to the world, it is not to vernments; and it is not to be doubted that,, this mode exclusively that his Majesty limits occupied at that time entirely with her own the posibility of secure and folid pacification, internal affairs, she would have avoided taking His Majesty makes no claim to prescribe to part in those of Europe, and would have re. France what shall be the form of her Govern mained faithful to her declarations. ment, or in whose hands the shall' vest the But from an opposite disposition, as soon as authority neceffary for conducting the affairs the French Revolution had broken out, almost. of a great and powerful nation.
all Europe entered into a league for its deHis Majesty looks only to the security of struction. The aggression was real, long time his own dominions and those of his allies, and before it was public; internal refiitance was to the general safety of Europe.- Whenever excited; its opponents were favourably rehe sall judge that such fecurity can in any ceived; their extravagant declamations were manner be attained, as resulting either from fupported; the French nation was insulted in the internal situation of that country, from the person of its Agents; and England let whose interval situation the danger has arisen, particularly this example by the diłmilial of or from such other circumstances of whatever the Minister accredited to her. nature as may produce the fame end, his Ma- France was, in fact, attacked in her inde jefty will eagerly embrace the opportunity to pendance, in her honour, and in her safety, concert with his allies the means of imme- long time before the war was declared. diate and general pacification.
Thus it is to the projects of subjection, Unhappily no l'uch security hitherto exists: diffolution, and dismemberment, which were no fufficient evidence of the principles by prepared against her, and the execution of which the new Government will be directed; which was several times attempted and purno reasonable ground by which to judge of its sued, that France has a right to impute the Aability. In this situation, it can for the evils which she has suffered, and those which present only remain for his Majesty to pursue,. have aflicted Europe. Such projects, for a. in conjunction with other powers, those ex long time without example, with respect to ertions of just and defenfive war, which his ro powerful a nation, could not fail to bring regard to the happiness of his subjects will on the most fatal consequences. never permit bim either to continue beyond Affailed on all sides, the Republic could the necessity in which they originate, or to ter not but extend universally the efforts of her minate on any other grounds, than such as defence ; and it is only for the maintenance may beft contribute to the secure enjoyment of her own independance that the has made
use of those means which the poffesfed, in her the prolongation of which threatens Europe own strength and the courage of her citizens. with an universal convulsion and irremediable As long as the saw that her enemies obstinate- evils. It is, therefore, to put a stop to the ly refuled to recognize her rights, the coun- course of these calamities, or in order that ted only upon the energy of her resistance; their terrible consequences may be reproached but as soon as they were obliged to abandon to those only who shall have provoked them, the hope of invation, the fought for means of that the First Consul of the French Republic conciliation, and manifested pacific inten- proposes to put an immediate end to hostilitioas: an} if there have not always been effi- ties, by agreeing to a suspension of arms, and cacious; if, in the midlt of the critical cir- naming Plenipotentiarics on each file, who cumstances of her internal fituation, which should repair to Dunkirk, or any other town the revolution and the war have succeslively as advantagcouly fituated for the quickness broaghe on, the former depofitaries of the of the respective communications, and who Executive Authority of France liave not al. should apply themselves without any delay ways shewn as much moderation, as the na to effect the re-establishment of peace and a toa itself has shewn courage, must, above good underfanding between the French Real, be imputed to the fatal and persevering public and England. animofity with which the resources of Eny The First Conful offers to give the passports had have been lavished to accomplish the ruin' which may be neceffary for this purpose. of France.
(Signed) C. M. TALLEYRAND. But if the wishes of his Britannic Majesty Paris, the 2016 Nivole (1416 Jan. 18001 (in conformity with his assurances) are, in
epublic, Leison with those of the French
eighth year of the French Republic. for the re-establishment of Peace, why, intead of attempting the apology of the war,
Letter from Lord Grenville in the Minister for foald not atention be rather paid to the
Foreign Affairs at Paris. seans of terminating it? And what obstacle can prevent a mutual understanding, of which
Downing-ftreet, Yan. 20, 1800. the utility is reciprocal, and is felt, especi- I HAVE the honour to inclose to you the ally when the First Consul of the French answer which his Majesty has directed me Republic has personally given so many proofs to return to the Official Note, which you of his eagernels to put an end to the calami- transmitted to me. I have che honour to be, ties of war, and of his disposition to maintain with high confideration, Sir, your moft obethe rigid obfervance of all treaties concluded? dient humble servant, The First Consul of the French Republic
(Signed) GRENVILLE. could not doubt that his Britannic Majesty re
To the Minister for Foreign Affairs, &c. &c. cognized the right of nations to choose the
at Paris. form of their Government, since it is from the exercise of this right that he holds his Crown : but he has been unable to compre
NOTE. bead how to this fundamental principle, upon THE Official Note transmitted by the Miniwhich refts the existence of Political Socie fter for Foreign Affairs in France, and reties, the Minister of his Majesty could annex ceived by the undersigned on the 18th init, inkauations which tend to an interference in has been laid before the King. de internal affairs of the Republic, and His Majesty cannot forbear expresing the which are no less injurious to the French na concern with which he observes in that Note, tion and to its Government, than it would be that the unprovoked aggressions of France, to England and his Majesty, if a fort of invi- the sole cause and origin of the war, are tation were held out in favour of that Repub systematically defended by her present rulers, lian Government of which England adopted under the fame injurious pretences by which the forms in the middle of the last century, they were originally attempted to be disor an exhortation to recall to the throne that guised. His Majesty will not enter into the fasily whom cheir birth had placed there, refutation of allegations now universally exand whom a Revolution compelled to descend ploded, and (in so far as thay respect his Maa from it.
jesty's conduct) not only in themselves ut. If at periods not far diftant, when the con- terly groundless, but contradicted both by Sitational system of the Republic presented the internal evidence of the transactions, to seither the strength nor the falidity which it which they relate, and also by the express contains at present, his Britannic Majesty testimony (given at the time) of the Govern. tino sght himself enabled to invite a negotia ment of France itselt. ton and pacific conferences; how is it poffi With respect to the object of the Note, bie that he should not be eager to renew ne his Majesty can only refer to the Answer pritions to which the present and reciprocal which he has already given. 6:vadisa of affairs promises a rapid progress ? He has explained, without reserve, the Da every love the voice of nations and of hun obstacles which, in his judgment, preclude, zanity implores the conclusion of a war, at the present moment, all hope of advanweed already by such great calamities, and tage frona negotiation. All the inducements