Imatges de pÓgina

sit orationibus assueta: quinto, quod se non immisceant cœtibus, ubi cantantur amatoria, vel exercentur inhonesta sexto, quod ab ebrietate omnino se abstineant." 14

I shall not delay to extract any of the canons which relate to the duty of preaching, from the time when the council of Cloveshoo, A. D. 747, in its ninth canon ordered every priest carefully and diligently to fulfil it. Upon a point which the Church has always so much insisted on, it does not seem necessary to heap up authorities: I would rather quote the opinion of the great canonist, as to some restrictions with regard to it. “Nota, quod non omnis qui vult prædicare, debet ad hoc admitti. Nam mere laicus nec publice nec private potest prædicare, nec etiam mulier. 23. dist. mulier. quod intelligas ascendendo pulpitum, et faciendo sermonem ad populum loquendo de clericis habes scire, quod papa ubique potest prædicare; episcopi vero ubique possunt prædicare, nisi per diœcesanos prohibeantur expresse, juxta illud Mat. Euntes in mundum universum prædicate, quod dictum fuit apostolis, in quorum loco succedunt episcopi. Auctoritatem tamen prædicandi aliis dare non possunt, nisi in propriis diœcesibus. Inferiores vero prælati, sive curati, subditis sibi commissis prædicare possunt, etiamsi fuerint diaconi tantum: aliis etiam officium prædicandi committere possunt in cura eis commissa, dum tamen tales sint, qui ad hoc approbati et vocati fuerint, ut sunt doctores in theologia, vel alias per episcopum approbati. Hi vero qui nec prælati nec

14 Lib. 1. tit. 9. Cum quanta. Compare the next ch. of the same

curati sunt, non possunt prædicare nisi mittantur ab his, qui hoc facere possunt." 15

It may appear scarcely necessary to state that severe penalties were attached to the performance of priestly functions by men who had not received the order of the priesthood: but I would quote two examples, in neither of which, however, the punishment is specified. One was brought before the convocation, sitting in S. Paul's, in 1463. "Die sabbati, toto concilio, ut prius, insimul congregato, adductus fuit coram domino et confratribus suis quidam Simon Harrison, apparatu fratris prædicatoris indutus, in ecclesia parochiali de Lamehith, Winton. dioec. per familiares domini suspecte in dicenda missa captus, qui solum, ut publice asseruit et fatebatur tunc ibidem, in ordine acolytus constitutus missas per longum tempus celebravit, idolatriam committendo. Et hoc audito, dominus commisit eum confratri suo Willielmo Winton. episcopo puniendum." 16

The other example to which I alluded is a very curious one, related in the chronicle of Henry de Knyghton. "Illis diebus (1391) erat quædam matrona in civitate Londoniensi quæ habebat unicam filiam quam instruxit ad celebrandum missam, et erexit altare in cubili suo secreto cum ornatu suo, sicque fecit filiam suam multis diebus vestire se more sacerdotis et ad altare accedere, et pro suo modo missam celebrare: sed cum venisset ad verba sacramenti, prostravit se ante altare et sacramentum non confecit, sed cætera missæ surgens usque ad finem

15 Lyndwood. lib. 3. tit. 4. Præterea. verb. prædicant. Cf. lib. 5. tit. 5. Reverendissimæ.

verb. auctorizatus est.

16 Wilkins. Conc. tom. 3. p. 585.

complevit, matre ejus eam juvante et suam devotionem agente. Iste error multo tempore duravit, donec per quandam vicinam ad talem missam secretius vocatam divulgaretur, et ad aures episcopi Londoniensis devenisset, qui eas ad præsentiam suam convocavit, et de errore convenit, et sacerdotissimam tonsuram comæ publice monstrare coegit, cujus caput nimis glabrosum inventum est; episcopus plorans nimis et ejulans de tali errore in ecclesia suo tempore contingente, multa lamenta emisit, et finem cum illis injuncta pœnitentia fecit." 17

Upon the case of those who had, from any cause, contracted irregularity in the receiving of their Orders, I shall extract the following constitution of archbishop Edmund, in the year 1236. "Omnes qui irregularitatem, in ordine suscepto, vel ante, vel post ordines susceptos, constat contraxisse, nisi cum eis dispensatum fuerit expresse per eos qui cum eis dispensare poterint, ab officii executione denunciamus esse suspensos; donec cum eis super hoc legitime fuerit dispensatum." Upon this Lyndwood says: "Irregularitatem. Quæ nomen accepit a regula, quam statuit Apostolus servandum in ordinatione clericorum, cujus contrarium dicitur irregularitas. Et nota quod irregularitas est quoddam impedimentum proveniens ex constitutione canonica, et non extenditur, nisi quatenus invenitur jure inflicta. In ordine suscepto. In tempore suscipiendi ordines; pone exemplum in scienter ordinato ab hæretico vel schismatico. Officii executione. Intelligas de solenni executione; tali videlicet quæ pertinet ad ordinem quem obtinet et

17 Script. x. tom. 2. p. 2738.

sub ratione ipsius ordinis. Unde talis irregularis de quo hic loquitur, se immiscere non potest officio ecclesiastico, ut videlicet publice et solemniter ministret in ordine suo tempore quo dicuntur vesperæ, matutinæ, missæ, vel aliæ horæ canonicæ. Privatim tamen, et per modum suffragii potest dicere horas suas ad quas tenetur ratione ordinis assumpti: et hoc puto verum si extra ecclesiam hoc faciat: secus si in ecclesia quæ ad talia deputatur. Potest talis tamen audire Divina in ecclesia: hoc verum si hoc non faciat ex contemptu, sed ex devotione. Et hoc quod hic dicitur, viz. quod irregularis debet abstinere ab executione officii donec fuerit cum eo dispensatum, non solum habet locum in ordinato ad majores ordines, sed etiam ad minores." 18

The constitution proceeds to specify several ways in which irregularity and consequent suspension were incurred for example, homicide, advocacy in causes of blood, simoniacs, schismatics, &c. The whole title, with Lyndwood's gloss, is well worth the consideration of the student, bearing as it does upon the penalties attached to mere suspension, which is not also accompanied with the further penalty of excommunication. The Pupilla has a chapter "de suspensione ab executione ordinis," in which the whole subject is very fully and accurately discussed. The different severities of the degrees of suspension are explained; as being either perpetual, or temporary: from a benefice, or from execution of spiritual functions, or from entrance into any church: and I regret that my space will not allow me to do more than thus barely refer to that part of the book.

19 Lib. I. tit. 4. Imprimis.

19 Pars vij. Cap. 6.

I should have been glad also to have given, although not so immediately connected with my subject, yet illustrative of it, some account of the various restrictions and rules laid down in the English councils, relating to the daily habits and pursuits and occupations of the clergy what they might both properly and lawfully engage in, and what they might not: also, some of the many canons which were passed regulating the dress which they should wear. These, however, I must pass by but in the note below are references to some places in Wilkins, where the matter is entered into : and if the reader examines them, he will certainly acknowledge, that on the present occasion, I could not have done justice to a subject so extensive, and of importance sufficient to justify a detailed consideration in a separate treatise.


I shall, therefore, now proceed to some particulars, relating to bishops. As to their consecration, it was always insisted on, in the church of England, that there should not be less than three bishops present, and assisting. And this from the time, when archbishop Egbert, in his excerpts," quoted the Nicene canon ; or up to that earlier age, when British bishops, present at the council of Arles, agreed to this rule.

"Ut sine tribus episcopis nullus episcopus ordi

20 Concilia. tom. 1. p. 574. 609. 652. 670. 706. 716. 732. Tom. 2. p. 4. 59. 141. 146. 296. Tom. 3. p. 29.61. 70. 586. 619. Tom. 4. p. 164. See Lyndwood also, lib. 3. tit. 1. Ut clericalis. John de Athon. Cap. Quoniam de habitu. The Pupilla oculi.

Lib. vij. cap. 10. It would be an endless task to attempt to refer to the foreign canonists, Van Espen, Bonacina, Thomassin, Saussajus, &c: all of whom treat very largely of the subject.

21 Wilkins. Conc. Tom. I. p. 107.

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