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ENCYCLOPÆDIA AMERICANA.

A

POPULAR DICTIONARY

OF

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE, HISTORY, POLITICS, AND

BIOGRAPHY,

BROUGHT DOWN TO THE PRESENT TIME;

INCLUDING

A COPIOUS COLLECTION OF ORIGINAL ARTICLES

IN

AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY;

ON

THE BASIS OF THE SEVENTH EDITION OF THE GERMAN

CONVERSATIONS-LEXICON.

EDITED BY

FRANCIS LIEBER,

ASSISTED BY

E. WIGGLESWORTH AND T. G. BRADFORD.

VOL. XII.

NEW EDITION.

Philadelphia:
DESILVER, THOMAS, & CO.

No. 247, MARKET STREET.

1836.

LIBRARY
UNIVERSI "V OF CALIFORNTA

Entered, according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1832, by

CAREY AND LEA, In the Clerk's office of the District Court of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. ENCYCLOPÆDIA AMERICANA.

1. Ashmead & Co. Printers.

Steuben, Frederic William Augustus, vere censure upon the negligent. Nubaron von; a distinguished Prussian offi- merous anecdotes are related illustrative cer, who attached himself to the Ameri- of the generosity, purity and kindness of can cause in the revolution of 1776. He his disposition. After the treacherous dehad been aid-de-camp to Frederic the fection of Arnold, the baron beld his name Great, and had attained the rank of lieu- in the utmost abhorrence. One day, he was tenant-general in his army. Sacrificing inspecting a regiment of light horse, when his honors and emoluments in Europe, that name struck his ear. The man was Steuben came to America in 1777, and ordered to the front, and presented an extendered his services to congress, as a vol- cellent appearance. Steuben told him unteer in their army, without claiming that he was too respectable to bear the any rank or compensation. He received name of a traitor; and at his request the the thanks of that body, and joined the soldier adopted that of the baron, whose main army under the commander-in- bounty he afterwards experienced, and chief at Valley Forge. Baron Steuben brought up a son by the same name. At soon rendered himself particularly useful the siege of Yorktown, baron Steuben to the Americans, by disciplining the was in the trenches at the head of a diforces. On the recommendation of gen- vision, where he received the first offer eral Washington, congress, in May, 1778, of lord Cornwallis to capitulate. The appointed the baron inspector-general of marquis de la Fayette appeared to relieve the army, with the rank of major-general. him in the morning ; but, adhering to the His efforts in this capacity were continu- European etiquette, the baron would not ed with remarkable diligence, until he quit his post until the surrender was comhad placed the troops in a situation to pleted or hostilities recommenced. The withstand the enemy. In the estimates matter being referred to general Washof the war office, 5000 extra muskets ington, the baron was suffered to remain were generally allowed for waste and de- in the trenches till the enemy's flag was struction in the army; but such was the struck. After the capture of Cornwallis, exact order under the superintendence of when the superior American officers were Steuben, that in his inspection return, but paying every attention to their captives, three muskets were deficient, and those Steuben sold his favorite horse in order to accounted for. A complete scheme of raise money to give an entertainment to exercise and discipline, which he com- the British officers, as the other majorposed, was adopted in the army by the generals had previously done. His watch direction of congress. He possessed the he had previously disposed of to relieve the right of command in the line, and at one wants of a sick friend. On another occaperiod was at the head of a separate de- sion, when he desired to reciprocate the intachment in Virginia. At the battle of vitations of the French officers, he ordered Monmouth, he was engaged as a volun- his people to sell his silver spoons and forks, teer. When reviewing the troops, it was saying it was anti-republican to make use his constant custom to reward the disci- of such things, and adding, that the gentleplined soldier with praise, and to pass se- men should have one good dinner if he ate

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